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PSY100Y5 (809)
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Chapter 7

Textbook summary chapter 7

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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 7 Human Memory - Three key processes involved in memory are encoding (getting information in), storage (maintaining it), and retrieval (getting it out). - Encoding involves forming a memory code - Encoding usually requires attention - Storage involves maintaining encoding information in memory over time - Retrieval involves recovering information from memory stores - Just as memory involves more than storage, forgetting involves more than losing something from the memory store - Forgetting may be due to deficiencies in encoding, storage, or retrieval Encoding: Getting Information into Memory - Like the problem of forgetting peoples names just after youve met them, the next-in-line effect illustrates that active encoding is a crucial process in memory The Role of Attention - Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. - Attention is often likened to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass thorough into conscious awareness. - There is debate weather stimuli are screened out early, during sensory input, or late, after the brain has processed the meaning or significance of the input - Attention involves late selection, based on the meaning of input. - However scientific evidence has found evidence on both early selection and late selection along with intermediate selection - Theorists conclude that the location of the attention filter may be flexible rather than fixed - Studies indicate that when participants are forced to divide their attention between memory encoding and some other task, large reductions in memory performance are seen Levels of Processing - Attention is critical to the encoding of memories, but not all attention is created equal. - Different rates of forgetting occur because some methods of encoding create more durable memory codes than others - Structural encoding is relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus - Phonemic encoding emphasizes what a word sounds like. - Semantic encoding emphasizes the meaning of verbal input; it involves thinking about the objects and the actions the words represent - Levels-of processing theory proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes www.notesolution.com
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