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Chapter 5

PSY100 Chapter 5 Summary

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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 5 - Consciousness: awareness of internal and external stimuli; includes your awareness of external events, your awareness of your internal sensations, your awareness of your self as the unique being having these experiences, and your awareness of your thoughts about these experiences - Unconscious: needs, wishes, and conflicts that lie below the surface of conscious awareness, on a different level of awareness, Freudian idea - Consciousness may have developed through evolution as perhaps a little forethought and planning may have been valuable in survival - Consciousness is from the activity in distributed networks of neural pathways - Electroencephalograph (EEG): a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp, in terms of brain waves - There are different waves: beta (13-24cps/ normal waking thought, alert problem solving), alpha (8-12cps/ deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation), theta (4-7cps/ light sleep), and delta (under 4cps/ deep sleep) differentiated by amplitude (height), and frequency (cycles per second cps) - Biological rhythms: periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning; these mean than organisms have internal biological clocks that monitor the daily alternation of light and darkness, annual pattern of the seasons, and phases of the moon - Circadian rhythms: 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species; used in regulation of sleep particularly, also rhythmic variations in blood pressure, urine production, hormonal secretion, and other physical functions like alertness, short-term memory etc. - Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN): small structure in the hypothalamus that receives direct inputs from receptors in the retina, SCN sneds signals to the nearby pineal gland whose secretion of the hormone melatonin plays a key role in adjusting biological clocks - Ignoring your biological clock and going to sleep at irregular times in rotating work shifts or jet lag can cause lower quality sleep, playing havoc with biological clock - Melatonin can reduce the effects of jet lag by helping travelers resynchronize their biological clocks or as a mild sedative depending when the dose occurs - Electromyography (EMG): records muscular activity and tension - Electrooculograph (EOG): records eye movement - Sleep has 5 different stages: o Stages 1: only a few minutes (1-7) where breathing and heart rate slow as muscle tension and body temperature decline, theta waves prominent  Hypnic jerks: brief muscular contractions that occur as people fall asleep) o Stage 2: 10-25 minutes, everything continues to decline  Sleep spindles: brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves o Stage 3,4: Slow-wave sleep – high-amplitude, low-frequency delta waves become prominent in EEG recordings o Stage 5: REM (rapid eye movement): discovered by accident in Nathaniel Kleitman’s lab in the 1950s, irregular breathing and pulse rate, high-frequency beta waves (low amplitude), dreaming most frequent in this stage, relatively deep sleep - During the night, people repeat this cycle about 4 times, with each REM stage getting progressively longer, peaking at 40-60 minutes long - Babies in their first few months sleep much longer often exceeding 16 hours in a day where 50% of their sleep is in REM as opposed to 20% for adults - After the first few months, REM is about 30% decreasing gradually until 20% - During adulthood, lighter sleep is observed as more time is spent in stage 1 rather than the slow-wave sleep but total sleep increases with age in a substantial minority of older people - There are cultural differences in sleeping: co-sleeping (with children and parents sleeping together) discouraged in Western society but common in Japan, napping practices (in tropical cultures, siesta to avoid working during the hottest times in the day) - Ascending reticular activating system (ARAS): consists of the afferent fibres running through the reticular formation that influences physiological arousal; neural regulation of sleep and waking - Serotonin, GABA, areas in the medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system also contribute to sleep regulation - Sleep is an adaptive process for: to conserve organisms’ energy, immobilization reduces exposure to predators and other dangers, helps animals restore energy and other bodily resources - Sleep deprivation: negative effects on participants’ moods and on their performance on both cognitive and perceptual motor tasks - Sleep restriction: partial sleep deprivation, negative effects are most likely when subjects must do long-lasting, difficult, or monotonous tasks, blamed for a large proportion of transportation accidents and mishaps in the workplace - Selective deprivation: where certain stages of sleep are interrupted - When REM is interrupted for several nights, subjects go into REM faster and easier and also make up for it in later nights; the same thing occurs with slow-wave sleep - Memory consolidation: firming up learning that takes place during the day, contributed to by REM and slow-wave sleep - Insomnia: chronic problems in getting adequate sleep; occurs in difficulty in falling asleep initially, difficulty in remaining asleep, persistent early-morning awakening o About 34-35% of adults have insomnia with 15-17% of adults have severe or frequent insomnia o Can be caused by excessive anxiety and tension, side-effect of emotional problems such as depression or significant stress, health problems like back pain, ulcers, and asthma, use of certain drugs especially stimulants like cocaine and amphetamines o Treated by sedative drugs; rebound insomnia can result from stopping sleep medication - Pseudoinsomnia: sleep state misperception, they think they are getting an inadequate amount of sleep - Narcolepsy: disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods; person goes directly from wakefulness into REM sleep, infrequent, only seen in about 0.05% of the population - Sleep apnea: involves frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep, when a person stops breathing for a minimum of 10 seconds usually accompanied with loud snoring, 2% of women, 4% of men - Nightmares: anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep, significant stress about 10% of adults, can be indicative of emotional disturbance - Night terrors: abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feelings of panic, can produce remarkable accelerations of heart rate
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