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Chapter 1

PSY100 Chapter 1 Summary

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Psychology: Chapter 1 – Introduction - Psychology: from Greek psyche (soul) and logos (study of a subject)  These words were put together in the 16 century to define a topic of study of the soul, spirit or mind separate from the body  Evolved from philosophy and physiology by the 1870s - William Wundt: founder of psychology as he advocated a scientific approach to the understanding of consciousness. Established the first formal psychology lab in 1879 the birthdate of psychology - Psychology: the scientific study of conscious experience, focused on the mind and mental processes - G. Stanley Hall (1846-1924): student of Wundt, contributed to the rapid growth of psychology in America by establishing the first research laboratory for psych, launching America’s first psych journal, helping in creation of American Psychological Association (APA) - Structuralism: based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze the consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related; fundamental components of conscious experience such as sensations, feelings and images; mostly Edward Titchener o Introspection: the careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience; requires training to make the subject (person being studied) more aware and more objective - Functionalism: based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure; mostly William James (1842- 1910) who wrote Principles of Psychology (1890) o Natural Selection: heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time o James argued that consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thoughts - Functionalists like James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey investigated mental testing, patterns of development in children, effectiveness of educational practices, and behavioural differences between sexes - Both schools of thought (functionalism and structuralism) faded away after being opposing theories but functionalism lead to behaviourism and applied psychology - Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930): studied under William James, founded one of the first dozen psychology labs in America at Wellesley College, invented a technique used for studying memory and became the first woman president of APA all without an official Ph.D. - Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939): first woman to receive Ph.D. in psych, wrote The Animal Mind (impetus for behaviourism), 2 woman president of APA, studied under James McKeen Cattell - Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886-1939): pioneering work in adolescent development, mental retardation and gifted children, debunked theories purported to explain why women were inferior to men - Behaviourism (1913-present): theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour; founded by John B. Watson (1878-1958) in early 1900s, proposed psychologist abandon the study of consciousness altogether to become a science as outer behaviour is the only verifiable activity, contributions from Watson, Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner - Behaviour: refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism - Stimulus: any detectable input from the environment - Behavioural approach also called stimulus-response (S-R) psychology and emphasized environment over heredity - Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): psychoanalysis to deal with psychological problems like irrational fears, obsessions and anxieties o According to Freud: the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour o Psychoanalytic theory (1900-present): attempts to explain personality, motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour - Freud’s work on the unconscious followed by Carl Jung and Alfred Adler - B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): wanted a return to observable behaviour without denying the existence of internal mental events; said that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes; his book Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971) asser
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