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pych ch 2.docx

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Dax Urbszat

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th Sept. 18 , 2011 Reading of lecture 2-Psychology Chapter 2-The research enterprise in psychology (Week of th Sept.16 ) Summarize the Central Kings Rural High School incident. The Scientific Approach To behaviour: What are the 3 interrelated goals Psychs. And other Scientists Set? 1. Measurement and Description  Any theory that is created must be testable  Basically, psys. goal is to develop measurement techniques that make it possible t describe behaviour clearly  Ex. If u were interested in the effects of diff. situations on emotions, u wld 1 hav to develop a way to measure the effects the situations had on emotions 2. Understanding and prediction  Higher level goal  Scientists believe they understand something when they are able to explain it 3. Application and control  Scientists hope that the info they find can be applied in reality to solve probs.  Ex. Today psy. Research is used to solve probs. In school, mental hospitals, and business facilities Define Hypothesis; An uncertain statement about the relationship between two variables Define Variables:  Are any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviours that are controlled or observed in a study  Ex. If u were studying that fear causes arousal, the 2 variables wld be physiological arousal and emotional state Define Theory:  A system of interrelated ideas and to explain a set of obs.  Ex. Using a handful of diff. concepts to explain the characteristics of language development Theories  most theories are too complex to be tested all at once  Ex. It wld be imposs. To create a single study that wld test all the facets of the evol’n theory  Cycle is create a theory ---- hypothesis--- experiment---fail then start again with anther hypothesis th Sept. 18 , 2011 Steps in Scientific Investigation: 1. Formulate a testable hypothesis  Take ur theory & turn it into a testable hypo.  In order for u to create a testable hypo. U need to list the variables needed, and rite a clear hypo.  This is done through operational definitions 2. Select the Research Method and Design the Study  Figure out how to test the hypo.  The hypo. Determines wht type of test will be done (i.e. expt. Case study, survey, etc.)  The researcher has to look at the pros & cons of each type of test, before choosing the most practical 1  Once the type of test has been decided a procedure can be created 3. Collect the Data (self-explanatory) 4. Analyze the Data and draw Conclusions  Obs. Usually converted to #’s, that represent the study’s raw data  Researchers use statistics to analyze their data & see if the hypo. Is right 5. Report the findings  Sci. can only progress when evry1 shares their findings  Final step is to write report that sums up the results Define Operational Definition: Describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable How did Dutton and Aron measure sexual attraction in their study? 1. One way: the amnt of sexual imagery in the subjects responses to a projective measure 2. Second Way: assessing the # of participants in various conditions who called the expt. Confederate after it was over Define Participants: Aka subjects, r the persons/animals whose bhvr is systematically observed in a study Define Collection Techniques: R procedures for making empirical obs. & measurements Define Journal:  A periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material  Usually on one specific topic The Scientific Approach:  Sci. isn’t the only way to draw conclusions about bhvr  Evry1 uses logic, casual obs. & common sense  Requires that people specify exactly what they are talking about when they form their hypos. th
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