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Chapter 1-3

Chapter 1 - 3 Textbook Notes

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Ayesha Khan

Chapter 1 – The Evolution of Psychology - psychology is practical, but it is more than that – it is a way of thinking From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed - PSYCHE – soul, spirit or mind - LOGOS – study of a subject - PSYCHOLOGY – “the study of the mind” A New Science is Born: The Contributions of Wundt and Hall - Wilhelm Wundt (German professor) campaigned to make psychology an independent discipline rather than a stepchild of philosophy or physiology, widely characterized as the founder of psychology - psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience, focusing on mind and mental processes The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism versus Functionalism - STRUCTURALISM – based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related - Structuralists wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensation, feelings and images. Their work was concerned more of sensation and perception in vision, hearing, and touch - INTROSPECTION – systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience - FUNCTIONALISM – based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure - NATURAL SELECTION – heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be “selected” over time - William James contended that psychology should investigate the functions rather than the structure of consciousness - James argued, consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thoughts (“stream of consciousness”) - Structuralists naturally gravitated to the laboratory, functionalists were more interested in how people adapt their behaviour to the demands of the real world around them Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behaviourism Makes Its Debut - BEHAVIOURISM – theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour (founded by John B. Watson) - Watson suggested psychologists abandon the study of consciousness altogether and focus exclusively on behaviours that they could observe directly because he believed power of the scientific method rested on the ideas of verifiability - BEHAVIOUR – refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism - Psychologists can study anything people do or say, but they could not study scientifically the thoughts, wishes, and feelings that might accompany these observable behaviours - Watson argued that an individual is made by the environment (nurture) rather than by genetic inheritance (nature) - STIMULUS – detectable input from the environment Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture - UNCONSCIOUS – contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour - PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY – attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviourism Flourishes - Skinner developed a system based on hid own philosophy of radical behaviourism that represented a departure from earlier forms of behaviourism and neo-behaviourism - He argued that psychology could understand and predict behaviour adequately without resorting to physiological explanations - Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes - According to Skinner, people are controlled by the environment, not by themselves (therefore, free will is an illusion) The Humanists Revolt - PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY – belief that behaviour is dominated by primitive, sexual urges - BEHAVIOURISM – study of simple animal behaviour - People are not masters of their own destinies - HUMANISM – theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth - Humanists: o Take an optimistic view of human nature o Human behaviour is governed primarily by each individual’s sense of self, or “self-concept” which animals presumably lack o People have a basic need to continue to evolve as human beings and to fulfill their potentials o Argued many psychological disturbances are the result of thwarting these uniquely human needs Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession - APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY – the branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems - CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY – branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Psychology Returns to It’s Roots: Renewed Interest in Cognition and Physiology - renewed interest in consciousness (“cognition”) and physiological bases of behaviour - COGNITION – refers to the mental process involved in acquiring knowledge, thinking or conscious experience - COGNIIVE PERSPECTIVE – people’s manipulations of mental images surely influence how they behave - Hebb suggested that repeated stimulations leads to the development of cell assemblies. These cell assemblies resemble cognitive units that together or in concert with other cell assemblies facilitate behaviour Psychology Broadens Its Horizons: Increased Interest in Cultural Diversity - research has been conducted in the United States by middle- and upper-class white psychologists who have used mostly middle- and upper-class white males as subjects o cross-cultural research is costly, difficult, and time consuming o psychologists worry that cultural comparisons may inadvertently foster stereotypes of various cultural groups, many of white already have a long history of being victimized by prejudice o ETHNOCENTRISM – the tendency to view one’s own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways - new interest in culture appears attribute to two recent trends: o advances in communication, travel, and increased global interdependence, bring more and more North Americans and Europeans into contact with people from non-Western cultures o the ethnic makeup of the Western world has become an increasingly diverse multicultural mosaic - what they want to learn: o test the generality of earlier findings and to catalogue both differences and similarities among cultural groups o increase knowledge of how culture is transmitted through socialization practices and how culture colours one’s view of the world o how people cope with cultural change and find ways to reduce misunderstandings and conflicts in intercultural interactions o enhance understanding of how cultural groups are affected by prejudice, discrimination, and racism o unique experiences of culturally diverse people from the point of view of those people Psychology Adapts: The Emergence of Evolutionary Psychology - EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY – examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations - Natural selection favours behaviours that enhance organisms’ reproductive success – that is, passing on genes to the next generation Psychology Today: Vigorous and Diversified - PSYCHOLOGY – is the science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems Research Areas in Psychology - Seven Major Research Areas in Modern Psychology: 1. developmental psychology – development across the life span 2. social psychology – interpersonal behaviour and the role of social forces in governing behaviour 3. experimental psychology – sensation, perception, learning, conducting, motivation, and emotion 4. physiological psychology – influence of genetic factors on behaviour, role of the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, and bodily chemicals in the regulation of behaviour 5. cognitive psychology – memory, reasoning, information processing, language, problem solving, decision making, and creativity 6. personality – describing and understanding individuals’ consistency in behaviour, factors that shape personality with personality assessments 7. psychometrics – measurement of behaviour and capacities, design of tests to assess personality, intelligence, and a wide range of abilities, development of new techniques for statistical analysis Professional Specialties in Psychology - Applied psychology consists of four clearly identified areas of specializations: 1. clinical psychology – evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders (less severe behavioural and emotion problems) 2. counseling psychology – work with people struggling with everyday problems of moderate severity 3. educational and school psychology – improve curriculum design, counsel children, aid parents and teachers 4. industrial and organizational psychology – tasks in the world of business - clinical and psychologists and psychiatrists have different training and educational requirements, as well as they have a different approach to treatment - PSYCHIATRY – is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders - Clinical psychology takes a non-medical approach to such problems Putting It in Perspective: Seven Key Themes - learn about both behaviour and the scientific discipline that investigates it - two sets: 1. statements highlighting crucial aspects of psychology as a way of thinking and as a field of study 2. broad generalizations about psychology’s subject matter: a. behaviour b. cognitive and physiological processes that underlie it Themes Related to Psychology - three crucial ideas Theme 1: Psychology is Empirical - EMPIRICISM – the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observations - Conclusions that are based on direct observation rather than reasoning, speculation, traditional beliefs, or common sense Theme 2: Psychology is Theoretically Diverse - psychologists seek to explain and understand what they observe, so they must construct a theory - THEORY – a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations (linking unrelated observations to try and explain them) - No single theory can adequately explain everything that is known about behaviour - Oversimplication to expect that one view has to be right while all others are wrong Theme 3: Psychology Evolves in a Sociohistorical Context - trends, issues, and values in society influence psychology’s evolution - psychology affects trends, issues, and values in society - psychology develops in a sociohistorical context - society and psychology influence each other in complex ways Themes Related to Psychology’s Subject Matter - four crucial ideas Theme 4: Behaviour Is Determined by Multiple Causes - behaviour is exceedingly complex, and most aspects of behaviour are determined by multiple causes - psychologists find that behaviour is governed by a complex network of interacting factors, an idea referred to as the multifactorial causation of behaviour Theme 5: Behaviour is Shaped by Cultural Heritage - CULTURE – refers to the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations - Because a cultural background is widely shared, members feel little need to discuss it with others and of then take it for granted Theme 6: Heredity and Environment Jointly Influence Behaviour - nature verses nurture (heredity vs. environment) - Watson: personality and ability develop almost exclusively on an individual’s environment - Galton: personality and ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance - Heredity and environment are both important Theme 7: People’s Experience of the World Is Highly Subjective - people sometimes see what they want to see - people also tend to see what they expect to see - psychologists strive to make their observations as objective as possible Chapter 2 – The Research Enterprise in Psychology The Scientific Approach to Behaviour Goals of the Scientific Enterprise - three sets of interrelated goals 1. measurement and description – develop measurement techniques that make it possible to describe behaviour clearly and precisely 2. understanding and prediction – can understand events when they can explain the reasons for the occurrence of the events - HYPOTHESIS – a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables - VARIABLES – any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviours that are controlled or observed in a study 3. application and control – scientists hope that the information gathered will help solve problems in everyday life - THEORY – system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations - by integrating apparently unrelated facts and principles into a coherent whole, theories permit psychologists to make the leap from the description of behaviour to the understanding of behaviour - new predications and suggesting new lines of inquire come from theories - SCIENTIFIC THEORY – must be testable (most theories are too complex to be tested all at once) - Theory construction is a gradual, iterative process that is always subject to revision Steps in a Scientific Investigation - scientific investigations are systematic (following an orderly pattern) Step 1: Formulate a Testable Hypothesis - predictions - to be testable, scientific hypotheses must be formulated precisely, and the variables under study must be clearly defined - OPERATIONAL DEFINITION – describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable Step 2: Select the Research Method and Design the Study - how to put the hypothesis to an empirical test - once researchers have chosen a general method, they must make detailed plans for executing their study - PARTICIPANTS – (subjects) persons or animals whose behaviour is systematically observed in a study Step 3: Collect the Data - DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES – procedures for making empirical observations and measurements Step 4: Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions - researchers use statistics to analyze their data and to decide whether their hypotheses have been supported - statistics plays an essential role in the scientific enterprise Step 5: Report the Findings - scientific progress can be achieved only if researchers share their findings with one another and with the general public - concise summary of the study and its findings - JOURNAL – a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material. Usually in a narrow defined area of inquiry Advantage of the Scientific Approach - Scientific Approach offers Two Major Advantages 1. clarity and precision – people must specify exactly what they are talking about when they formulate hypotheses, which enhances communication about important ideas 2. relative intolerance of error – scientists are trained to be skeptical and scrutinize one another’s findings with a critical eye - RESEARCH METHODS – consist of various approaches to the observation measurement, manipulations, and control of variables in empirical studies - Two Basic Types of Methods used in Psychology: 1. Experimental Research Methods 2. Descriptive / Correlational Research Methods Looking for Causes: Experimental Research - EXPERIMENT – research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result (detects cause-and-effect) Independent and Dependent Variables - INDEPENDENT VARIABLE – (X) is a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable (experimenter controls or manipulates) - DEPENDENT VARIABLE – (Y) is the variable that is thought to be affect by manipulation of the independent variable - dependent variable is usually the participants behaviour - independent = free to be varied - dependent = depend on manipulations of the independent variable Experimental and Control Groups - EXPERIMENTAL GROUP – consists of subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable - CONTROL GROUP – consists of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group - It is crucial that the experimental and control croups in a study be alike, except for the different treatment that they receive in regards to the independent variable - If two groups are alike in all respects except for the variation created by the manipulation of the independent variable, any differences between the two groups on the dependent variable must be due to the manipulation of the independent variable Extraneous Variables - the experimental and control groups have to be alike only on dimensions relevant to the dependent variable - experimenters concentrate on ensuring that the experimental and control groups are alike on a limited number of variables that could have a bearing on the results of the study - EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES – any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study - CONFOUNDING OF VARIABLES – occurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out other specific effects - RANDOM ASSIGNMENT – of subjects occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study Variations in Designing Experiments - Variations 1. sometimes it is advantageous to use only one group of subjects who serve as their own control group 2. it is possible to manipulate more than one independent variable in a single experiment - INTERACTION – the effect of one variable depends on the effect of another 3. it is possible to use more than one dependent variable in a single study Advantages and Disadvantages of Experimental Research - Advantage: o Permits conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships between variables o Draw conclusions about causation because the precise control available in the experiment allows them to isolate the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable, while neutralizing the effects of extraneous variables - Disadvantage: o Experiments are often artificial (researchers must often construct simple, contrived situations to test their hypotheses experimentally) o Experimental method can’t be used to explore some research questions (due to ethical concerns or practical realities) o Manipulations of variables can be difficult or impossible Looking for Links: Descriptive/Correlational Research - include naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys - the researcher cannot manipulate the variables under study, and therefore cannot be used to determine cause- and-effect relationship between variables - DESCRIPTIVE/CORRELATIONAL METHODS – permit investigators to only describe patterns of behaviour and discover links or associations between variables Naturalistic Observation - NATURAL OBSERVATION – a researcher engages in careful observation of behaviour without intervening directly with the subjects - NATURALISTIC – behaviour is allowed to unfold naturally (without interference) in its natural environment, allowing researchers to study behaviour under conditions that are less artificial than in experiments Case Studies - CASE STUDY – in-depth investigation of an individual subject - PSYCHOLOGICAL AUTOPSIES – method is applied to victims of suicide - Clinical psychologists, who diagnose and treat psychological problems, routinely do case studies of their clients - When clinicians assemble a case study for diagnostic purposes, they generally are not conducting empirical research - Case study RESEARCH typically involves investigation analyzing a collection of case studies to look for patterns that permit general conclusions - Case studies are well suited for investigating certain phenomena, such as psychological disorders and neuropsychological issues - Problem to case studies is the can be highly subjective Surveys - SURVEY – researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants’ behaviour - Problem with surveys is that they depend on self-report data - Intentional deception, wishful thinking, memory lapses, and poorly worded questions can distort participants’ verbal reports about their behaviour - A survey is characterized by sampling bias if the sample on which it is based is not representative of the population that it is intended to describe Advantages and Disadvantages of Descriptive/Correlational Research - compared to strengths and weaknesses of experimental research - Advantage: o Give researchers a way to explore questions that could not be examined with experimental procedures o DESCRIPTIVE/CORRELATINAL RESEARCH – broadens the scope of phenomena that psychologists are able to study - Disadvantage: o Investigators cannot control events to isolate cause and effect o CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH – cannot demonstrate conclusively that two variables are causally related - in Correlational studies assessing the relationship between two variables, you never know if the correlation between them is actually due to the relationship between each of them and some third variable you did not even measure Looking for Conclusions: Statistics and Research - STATISTICS – use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data - Statistical analyses permits researchers to draw conclusions based on their observations Descriptive Statistics - used to organize and summarize data Central Tendency 1. MEDIAN – score that falls exactly in the centre of a distribution of scores 2. MEAN – arithmetic average of scores in a distribution 3. MODE – most frequent score in a distribution Variability - refers to how much the scores in a data set vary from each other and from the mean - STANDARD DEVIATION – an index of the amount of variability in a set of data - When variability is great, standard deviation will be relatively large - When variability is low, the standard deviation will be smaller Correlation - exists when two variables are related to each other - CORRELATION COEFFICIENT – numerical index of the degree of relationships between two variables o Indicates the direction (+ or -) of the relationship o How strongly the two variables are related Positive vs. Negative Correlation - positive correlation indicates that two variables co-vary in the same direction - negative correlation indicates two variables co-vary in the opposite direction Strength of the Correlation - SIZE OF THE COEFFICIENT – indicates the strength of an association between two variables - close correlation to either -1.00 or +1.00 indicate stronger relationship Correlation and Prediction - As correlation increases, the ability to predict one variable based on knowledge of the other variable increases Correlation and Causation - Does not tell us whether a cause-and-effect relationship exists between the two variables - Variables can be high correlated even though they are not causally related - Correlation is not equivalent to causation Inferential Statistics - used to interpret data and draw conclusions - “STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT” – when statistical calculations indicate that research results are not likely to be due to chance - STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE – exits when the probability that the observed findings are due to change is very low Looking for Flaws: Evaluating Research - REPLICATION – the repetition of a study to see whether the early results are duplicated Sampling Bias - SAMPLE - collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study - POPULATION – much larder collection of animals or people - A sample is representative if its composition is similar to the composition of the population - SAMPLING BIAS – exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn Placebo Effects - PLACEBO – substance that resembles a drug but no actual pharmacological effect - Placebos are given to some subjects to control for the effects of a treacherous extraneous variable: participants’ expectations - PLACEBO EFFCTS – occur when participants’ expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment Distortions in Self-Report Data - SOCIAL DESIRABILITY BIAS – tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself - Respondents misunderstand questionnaire items surprisingly often, and the way questions are worded can shape subjects’ responses - RESPONSE SET – tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions Experimenter Bias - occurs when a researcher’s expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtains - researchers see what they want to see - may lead researchers to unintentionally influence the behaviour of their subjects - DOUBLE-BLIND PROCEDURE – research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experiment or control group (used to neutralize experimenter bias) Looking at Ethics: Do the Ends Justify the Means? - in psychological research, the major ethical concerns centre on the use of deception and guidelines for the participation of humans and animals in psychological research - Critics argue against the use of deception on several grounds 1. assert that deception is only a nice world for lying, which they see as inherently immoral 2. by deceiving unsuspecting participants, psychologists may undermine many individuals’ trust in others 3. point out that many deceptive studies produce distress for participants who were not forewarned about that possibility. Subjects may experience great stress during a study or be made to feel foolish when the true nature of a study is explained - defense: many important issues could not be investigated if experimenters we
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