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PSY100Y5 (771)
Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Textbook Notes - Treatments to Psychological Disorders

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ayesha Khan

CHAPTER 15: TREATMENT O FP SYCHOLOGICAL D ISORDERS (PGS. 694-739) The Elements of the Treatment Process Treatments: How Many Types Are There?  Psychotherapists use many treatment methods that include discussion, advice, emotional support, persuasion, condition procedures, relaxation training, role-playing, drug therapy, biofeedback, and group therapy (1) Insight Therapy – is a “talk therapy” in the tradition of Freud’s psychoanalysis o Clients engage in complex verbal interactions with the therapist. o Goal – pursue increased insight regarding the nature of client’s difficulties and sort through possible solutions o i.e. Family/Marital Therapy (2) Behavior Therapy – based on principles of learning. o Make direct efforts to alter problematic responses (i.e. phobias) and maladaptive habits (i.e. drug use) o Involves classical, operant and observational learning (3) Biomedical Therapies – involve interventions into a person’s biological functioning, through drug and electroconvulsive (shock) therapy o These treatments have been provided only by physicians with a medical degree (psychiatrists) Clients: Who Seeks Therapy  The two most common presenting problems are excessive anxiety and depression  A client does not necessarily have an identifiable psychological disorder  Reason’s people don’t pursue treatment – cost, lack of insurance, stigma (personal weakness). Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment?  Psychology and psychiatry are the principal professions involved in the provision of psychotherapy (refers to professional treatment with special training)  Psychologists – o 2 Types – clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems. o Clinical – treatment of full fledged disorders. o Counseling – treatment of everyday adjustment problems in normal people. o Must earn doctoral degree. o Psychologists more likely to use behavioral techniques.  Psychiatrist – o Psychiatrist – physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders o Treat everyday behavioural problem and devote more time to severe disorders (schizophrenia, mood disorders) o MD Degree  Other Mental Health Professionals o Hospitals – clinical social workers, psychiatrist nurses as part of a team. o Counselors – schools, colleges etc. – marital/drug counseling. Insight Therapies  Involve verbal interactions intended to enhance the client’s self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior Psychoanalysis 1/6 CHAPTER 15: TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS (PGS. 694-739)  Psychoanalysis – an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious, conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference  Freud – neurotic problems are caused by unconscious conflicts left over from early childhood o He mostly treated anxiety-dominated disturbances ie. phobic, panic, obsessive- compulsive and conversion disorders o Inner conflicts involves battles among the Id, ego, and superego o He noted that defensive maneuvers lead to self-defeating behavior o He asserted that defenses tend to be only partially successful in alleviating anxiety, guilt and other distressing emotions  Probing the Unconscious – two techniques o Attempts to probe the murky depths of the unconscious to discover the unresolved conflicts causing the client’s neurotic behavior o Free Association – clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible o Dream Analysis – therapist interprets symbolic meaning of the client’s dreams.  Interpretation – refers to the therapist’s attempts to explain the inner significance of the behaviors  Resistance – largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy  Transference – clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their live o The client transfers conflicting feelings about important people onto the therapist  Modern Psychodynamic Therapies – based on Jung, Adler, etc. o Other central features of modern psychodynamic therapies include: (1) Focus on emotional experience (2) Exploration of efforts to avoid distressing thoughts and feelings (3) Identification of recurring patterns in patients’ life experiences (4) Discussion of past experience, especially event in early childhood (5) Analysis of interpersonal relationships (6) A focus on the therapeutic relationship itself (7) Exploration of dreams and other aspects of fantasy Client-Centered Therapy  Client-Centered Therapy – an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy. (Rogers) o Rogers – conflict due to incongruence between reality and self-concept. o Help clients to realize that they do not have to worry constantly about pleasing others and winning acceptance  Therapeutic Climate – therapist must provide: o Genuineness – the therapist must be genuine with the client, communicating honestly and spontaneously and not be phony or defensive o Unconditioned positive regard – therapist must show a non-judgmental acceptance the client as a person where therapists can disapprove of particular behaviors o Empathy – the therapist must understand the world from client’s point of view  Therapeutic Process – therapist provides relatively little guidance, but primarily provides feedback. o Key Task: Clarification 2/6 C HAPTER 15: TREATMENT O FP SYCHOLOGICAL D ISORDERS (PGS. 694-739) o Therapists try to help clients better understand their interpersonal relationships and become more comfortable with their genuine self Therapies Inspired by Positive Psychology  Positive psychology uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence Group Therapy  Group therapy is the simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group.  Participant’s Roles – participants function as therapists for one another. o Group members describe problems, viewpoints, and coping strategies. o Therapist – selecting participants, setting goals for group, maintaining therapeutic process, and protecting clients from harm.  Advantages of The Group Experience – o Save time, money, clients learn misery not unique, work on social skills. Couples and Family Therapy  Couples or Marital therapy involves the treatment of both partners in a committed, intimate relationship, in which the main focus is on the relationship issues  Family Therapy involves the treatment of a family unit as a whole, in which the main focus is on family dynamics an communication How Effective Are Insight Therapies?  Clients usually invest considerable time, effort and money  Spontaneous Remission – recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment.
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