Textbook Notes (369,203)
Canada (162,462)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY100Y5 (809)
Chapter 1

Textbook Chapter 1 Notes

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Ayesha Khan

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Notes From Reading C HAPTER 1:T HE E VOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY (PGS. 1-41) From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed Philosophy, Physiology, and Psychology  Psychology comes from two Greek Words o Psyche = soul and Logos = the study of subject  Psychology is the study of the mind  Classical Greek philosophers, such as Socrates and Aristotle, considered issues such as mind-body and the nature of memory  Later philosophers, such as Descartes, Hume, and Mill, speculated on the mind and emotions  Physiologists, such as Gall, Broca, and Muller, demonstrated the value of an empirical approach A New Science is Born: The Contributions of Wundt & Hall  Born out of philosophy and physiology – movement led by Wilhelm Wundt o Wundt known as father of psych o According to Wundt, psych should be a science. Focus on consciousness o Psych became the scientific study of conscious experience.  Hall, G Stanley – studied briefly with Wundt, contributor to American Psych o Established first American research lab – John Hopkins (1883) o Launched American’s 1st Journal (1887) o 1892 – Became 1st president of APA. The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism versus Functionalism  Structuralism was led by English Edward Tichener o Structuralism – Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related (Sensation, perception, hearing and touch) o Relied on method of Introspection– careful, systematic, self-observation of one’s own conscious experience. o Once trained, subjects were exposed to auditory tones, optical illusions, and visual stimuli under carefully controlled and systematically varied conditions. Then asked to analyze what they experienced.  Functionalism was led by American William James o Functionalism – based on the belief that psychology should investigate the purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure o Has now faded, but led to today’s “applied psych” and “behaviorism”  Influenced by Darwin, Natural Selection – heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations, and thus become selected over time o I.e. typical characteristics of a species must serve a purpose.  James argued that consciousness was “flow” of thoughts and structuralists examined only static points. Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behviourism Makes Its Debut  Behaviourism was founded by John B. Watson, and asserted that psychology should study only observable behavior  Behaviour – Refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism o Watson believed one could study what people do or say, but not their thoughts and wishes. 1/5 Notes From Reading C HAPTER 1:T HE E VOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY (PGS. 1-41)  The behaviourists stressed the important of environment over heredity and pioneered animal research  Psych’s Mission: relate behavior (responses) to observable events in environment (stimulus) o Stimulus – is any detectable input from the environment o Behavioral Approach often called S-R (stimulus-response) psych Freud Brings the Unconsciousness into the Picture  Sigmund Freud – Austrian Physician – approach to psych grew out of treatment of mental disorders.  Freud focused on the Unconscious – thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour o Believed slip in words and dreams were people’s true feelings o Psychological Disturbances largely caused by conflict existing at unconscious level  Psychoanalytic Theory – attempt to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour. o People are fully aware of forces on their behaviour o Behaviour is greatly influenced by how people cope with their sexuality urges Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviorism Flourishes  Skinner – American psych o Believed in strict focus of observable behaviour and “nurture” idea. o “Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and tend not to repeat response that lead to negative or neutral outcomes”  Behavioural primciples are now widely used in factories, schools, prisons, mental hospitals  Generated controversy by arguing that free will is an illusion The Humanists Revolt  Humanism – 1950’s. Theoretical Orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, esp. freedom and potential for personal growth.  Finding both behaviourism and psychoanalysis unappealing, advocates of humanism, such as Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, began to gain some influence  Humanism emphasizes the unique qualities of human behaviour and the irrelevance of animal research  Carl Rogers – behaviour governed by sense of self or “Self Concept” o Not found in animals o Maslow and Rogers believed in fundamental human drive to personal growth  Humanism has faded. Greatest contribution is treatment of psych problems and disorders Psychology in Canada  The first experimental laboratory in Canada was established in 1891 at the University of Toronto by James Mark Baldwin  John Wallace Baird was the first Canadian President of APA (in 1918)  The Canadian Psychological Association was formed in 1939  Rapid growth in Canadian psychology has been evident over the last century 2/5 Notes From Reading C HAPTER 1:T HE E VOLUTION OF P SYCHOLOGY (P GS. 1-41) Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession  In the first half of the 20 century, only a handful of psychologists were involved in the delivery of professional services to the public  Applied Psychology – the branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems o Initially found in WWI, for the recruitment for positions  Clinical Psychology – the branch of psychology concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
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