Textbook Notes (369,203)
Canada (162,462)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY100Y5 (809)
Chapter 1

Textbook Chapter 1 Notes

5 Pages
62 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Ayesha Khan

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Description
Notes From Reading C HAPTER 1:T HE E VOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY (PGS. 1-41) From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed Philosophy, Physiology, and Psychology  Psychology comes from two Greek Words o Psyche = soul and Logos = the study of subject  Psychology is the study of the mind  Classical Greek philosophers, such as Socrates and Aristotle, considered issues such as mind-body and the nature of memory  Later philosophers, such as Descartes, Hume, and Mill, speculated on the mind and emotions  Physiologists, such as Gall, Broca, and Muller, demonstrated the value of an empirical approach A New Science is Born: The Contributions of Wundt & Hall  Born out of philosophy and physiology – movement led by Wilhelm Wundt o Wundt known as father of psych o According to Wundt, psych should be a science. Focus on consciousness o Psych became the scientific study of conscious experience.  Hall, G Stanley – studied briefly with Wundt, contributor to American Psych o Established first American research lab – John Hopkins (1883) o Launched American’s 1st Journal (1887) o 1892 – Became 1st president of APA. The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism versus Functionalism  Structuralism was led by English Edward Tichener o Structuralism – Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related (Sensation, perception, hearing and touch) o Relied on method of Introspection– careful, systematic, self-observation of one’s own conscious experience. o Once trained, subjects were exposed to auditory tones, optical illusions, and visual stimuli under carefully controlled and systematically varied conditions. Then asked to analyze what they experienced.  Functionalism was led by American William James o Functionalism – based on the belief that psychology should investigate the purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure o Has now faded, but led to today’s “applied psych” and “behaviorism”  Influenced by Darwin, Natural Selection – heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations, and thus become selected over time o I.e. typical characteristics of a species must serve a purpose.  James argued that consciousness was “flow” of thoughts and structuralists examined only static points. Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behviourism Makes Its Debut  Behaviourism was founded by John B. Watson, and asserted that psychology should study only observable behavior  Behaviour – Refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism o Watson believed one could study what people do or say, but not their thoughts and wishes. 1/5 Notes From Reading C HAPTER 1:T HE E VOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY (PGS. 1-41)  The behaviourists stressed the important of environment over heredity and pioneered animal research  Psych’s Mission: relate behavior (responses) to observable events in environment (stimulus) o Stimulus – is any detectable input from the environment o Behavioral Approach often called S-R (stimulus-response) psych Freud Brings the Unconsciousness into the Picture  Sigmund Freud – Austrian Physician – approach to psych grew out of treatment of mental disorders.  Freud focused on the Unconscious – thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour o Believed slip in words and dreams were people’s true feelings o Psychological Disturbances largely caused by conflict existing at unconscious level  Psychoanalytic Theory – attempt to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour. o People are fully aware of forces on their behaviour o Behaviour is greatly influenced by how people cope with their sexuality urges Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviorism Flourishes  Skinner – American psych o Believed in strict focus of observable behaviour and “nurture” idea. o “Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and tend not to repeat response that lead to negative or neutral outcomes”  Behavioural primciples are now widely used in factories, schools, prisons, mental hospitals  Generated controversy by arguing that free will is an illusion The Humanists Revolt  Humanism – 1950’s. Theoretical Orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, esp. freedom and potential for personal growth.  Finding both behaviourism and psychoanalysis unappealing, advocates of humanism, such as Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, began to gain some influence  Humanism emphasizes the unique qualities of human behaviour and the irrelevance of animal research  Carl Rogers – behaviour governed by sense of self or “Self Concept” o Not found in animals o Maslow and Rogers believed in fundamental human drive to personal growth  Humanism has faded. Greatest contribution is treatment of psych problems and disorders Psychology in Canada  The first experimental laboratory in Canada was established in 1891 at the University of Toronto by James Mark Baldwin  John Wallace Baird was the first Canadian President of APA (in 1918)  The Canadian Psychological Association was formed in 1939  Rapid growth in Canadian psychology has been evident over the last century 2/5 Notes From Reading C HAPTER 1:T HE E VOLUTION OF P SYCHOLOGY (P GS. 1-41) Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession  In the first half of the 20 century, only a handful of psychologists were involved in the delivery of professional services to the public  Applied Psychology – the branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems o Initially found in WWI, for the recruitment for positions  Clinical Psychology – the branch of psychology concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit