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Psychology (1,899)
PSY100Y5 (809)
Dax Urbszat (681)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat

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Chapter 3 – Biological Bases of Behaviour Communication in the nervous system Nervous tissue: the basic hardware - Neurons: individual cells in nervous system that receive, integrate and transmit information - Soma = cell body: contain cell nuclear and control chemical “equipment” common to most cells - Dendrites: parts of a neuron that are specialized receive information - Axon: long thin fibre that transmits signals away from soma to other neurons/ parts of body - Myelin sheath: insulation material that covers some axon, derives from glia cells - Terminal buttons: small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitter - Synapse: junction where one information is transmitted to another neuron - Gila (Glue): cells found throughout the nervous system and provide various support for the neurons - Neurotransmitter: the chemical that transmit from one another neuron The neural impulse: using energy to send signals 1. When neurons at rest, the concentration of negative charged ions is higher, the resting potential of neurons is its stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive 2. The action potential: cell membrane opens to let in more +ve ions cause an action potential – the brief shift in neuron electrical charge along the axon. Then the cell membrane close up, wait for the cell body to charge, calling this waiting time the absolute refractory period – he minimum time after an action potential when another action potential cannot begin. 3. The all-of-non law: like can’t fire half gun The synapse: where neurons meet - Sending signal  the presynaptic neuron (the neuron that send signal send across the synaptic gap) when through the gap and the post synaptic neuron receives the signals  How msg travel across the gap? Presynaptic neuron in packed in the synaptic vesicle down to the synapse, release to the gap, the other received end recognized and respond to the information received - Receiving signal—the postsynaptic potential  Reaction area: the postsynaptic potential (PSP) a voltage change at the reception site on postsynaptic cell membrane  2 type of msg send from cell to cell: the inhibitory PSP and the excitatory PSP  Inhibitory PSP – negative shift of voltage, ↓the action potential  Excitatory PSP – positive shift of voltage, ↑ the action potential  The reuptake – neurotransmitter are sponge up from synapse cleft by presynaptic membrane - Integrate signal – neural networking  Eliminating the old and less used neurotransmitter is more important than creating new ones, it might influence behaviour Neurotransmitter and behaviour - The two types of neurotransmitter: the inhibitory PSP and the excitatory PSP & the receiving site and releasing site of synapse - Acetylcholine (ACh): the only transmitter between motor and voluntary muscles, influenced by chemicals: agonist, chemicals binds to the receptors and simulate the action of a neurotransmitter, cause postsynaptic potentials; antagonist, chemicals binds to the receptors and block the activity of postsynaptic potentials, oppose action of neurotransmitters - Monoamines: the 3 neurotransmitter: Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. - Transmitter consist of amino acids: gamma-animobutyric (GAMA) and glycine are the inhibitory postsynaptic potential; Glutamate: amino acid transmitter for learning and memory - Endorphins: internal produce chemical that resemble opiates in structure and the effect Organization of the Nervous system Peripheral nervous system (ns) - All those nerves that lie outside brain and spinal cord - Subdivided into somatic ns and autonomic ns - Somatic ns: Nerves connected to voluntary skeletal muscle and to sensory receptor: 2 types of nerves fibre  Afferent nerve fibres: axon from peripheral of body to the centre nervous system  Efferent nerve fibres: axon opposite of Afn - Automatic ns: connected to heart, blood vessel, smooth muscle and gland.; subdivided into two branches  Sympathetic division: mobilizes body for emergencies: The flight-or-fight respond  Parasympathetic division : for energy resources conserved (when no emergency) - Central nervous system (CNS): brain + spinal cord Look inside the brain:
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