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Chapter 11

PSY100-Chapter11 StageTables.pdf

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Erikson’s Personality Development Stage Theory Stage Life Period Psychological Question Characteristics Crisis Stage 1 year of Trust vs. Mistrust Is my world predictable - if biological needs are met by the caregivers and sound attachments are 1 life and supportive? formed,the child should develop an optimistic,trusting attitude toward the world. - if biological needs are not met,a distrusting,pessimistic personality may result. Stage 2nd and 3 rd Autonomy vs. Shame Can I do things myself or - if the child begins to take some personal responsibility for 2 years and Doubt must I always rely on feeding,dressing,and bathing,he/she acquires a sense of self-sufficiency. others? - if parents are never satisfied with the child’s efforts,the child may develop a sense of personal shame and self-doubt. Stage 4 through Initiative vs. Guilt Am I good or am I bad? - overcontrolling parents may begin to instill feelings of guilt,and self- th 3 6 years esteem may suffer. - parents need to support their children’s independence while maintaining appropriate controls. Stage Age 6 Industry vs. Inferiority Am I competent or am I - children who are able to function effectively in the social sphere where 4 through worthless? productivity is highly valued should learn to value achievement and to take pride in accomplishment, resulting in a sense of competence. puberty Stage Adolescence Identity vs. Confusion Who am I and where am I - this struggle involves working out a stable concept of oneself as a 5 going? unique individual and embracing an ideology or system of values that provides a sense of direction Stage Early Intimacy vs. Isolation Shall I share my life with- the key concern is whether one can develop the capacity to share 6 adulthood another or live alone? intimacy with others Stage Middle Generativity vs. Self-Will I produce something of- the key challenge is to acquire a genuine concern for the welfare of 7 adulthood absorption real value? future generations Stage Late Integrity vs. Despair Have I lived a full life?- the challenge is to avoid the tendency to dwell on the mistakes of the 8 adulthood past and on one’s death Piaget’s Cognitive Development Stage Theory Stage Life Mode of Thought Process Characteristics Period Thinking Stage 1 Birth to 2 Sensorimotor - coordination of sensory input and - gradual appearance of symbolic thought(ex. by the end of this years Period motor responses stage,a child can use mental symbols to represent objects) - development of object object permanence - develops when a child recognizes that objects permanence continue to exist even when they are no longer visible. Stage 2 2 to 7 Preoperational - development of symbolic thought - children improve their use of mental images years Period marked by irreversibility, conservation - the awareness that physical quantities remain centration, and egocentrism constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance centration - the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem,neglecting other important aspects. irreversibility - the inability to envision reversing
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