Erikson’s Personality Development Stage Theory
Stage Life Period Psychological Question Characteristics
Stage 1 year of Trust vs. Mistrust Is my world predictable - if biological needs are met by the caregivers and sound attachments are
1 life and supportive? formed,the child should develop an optimistic,trusting attitude toward the
- if biological needs are not met,a distrusting,pessimistic personality may
Stage 2nd and 3 rd Autonomy vs. Shame Can I do things myself or - if the child begins to take some personal responsibility for
2 years and Doubt must I always rely on feeding,dressing,and bathing,he/she acquires a sense of self-sufﬁciency.
others? - if parents are never satisﬁed with the child’s efforts,the child may
develop a sense of personal shame and self-doubt.
Stage 4 through Initiative vs. Guilt Am I good or am I bad? - overcontrolling parents may begin to instill feelings of guilt,and self-
3 6 years esteem may suffer.
- parents need to support their children’s independence while maintaining
Stage Age 6 Industry vs. Inferiority Am I competent or am I - children who are able to function effectively in the social sphere where
4 through worthless? productivity is highly valued should learn to value achievement and to
take pride in accomplishment, resulting in a sense of competence.
Stage Adolescence Identity vs. Confusion Who am I and where am I - this struggle involves working out a stable concept of oneself as a
5 going? unique individual and embracing an ideology or system of values that
provides a sense of direction
Stage Early Intimacy vs. Isolation Shall I share my life with- the key concern is whether one can develop the capacity to share
6 adulthood another or live alone? intimacy with others
Stage Middle Generativity vs. Self-Will I produce something of- the key challenge is to acquire a genuine concern for the welfare of
7 adulthood absorption real value? future generations
Stage Late Integrity vs. Despair Have I lived a full life?- the challenge is to avoid the tendency to dwell on the mistakes of the
8 adulthood past and on one’s death Piaget’s Cognitive Development Stage Theory
Stage Life Mode of Thought Process Characteristics
Stage 1 Birth to 2 Sensorimotor - coordination of sensory input and - gradual appearance of symbolic thought(ex. by the end of this
years Period motor responses stage,a child can use mental symbols to represent objects)
- development of object object permanence - develops when a child recognizes that objects
permanence continue to exist even when they are no longer visible.
Stage 2 2 to 7 Preoperational - development of symbolic thought - children improve their use of mental images
years Period marked by irreversibility, conservation - the awareness that physical quantities remain
centration, and egocentrism constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance
centration - the tendency to focus on just one feature of a
problem,neglecting other important aspects.
irreversibility - the inability to envision reversing