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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - The Evolution of Psychology.docx

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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 1 - The Evolution of Psychology The Evolution of Psychology  Suma = Reena Virk’s mother, Manjit = father  Reena = 14 years old, lived in Victoria, British Columbia  Reena wanted to be friends with Kelly Ellard and was called to their group on November 14 , 1997  Groupà seven girls aged 14-16 and one male aged 16  She was beaten and burned with cigarettes  Tried to run away but dragged to waterway  Her body found 1 week later by police  Warren Glowatski and Kelly Ellard convicted of 2 degree murder th  Ellard sentenced on July 7 , 2005 to life imprisonment  September 2008, British Columbia Court of Appeal granted her appeal to 4 trial th  Glowatski, now 26, convicted in 1999, but now trying to get back to school and set life  Reena’s father wrote moving book about his daughter’s life  Film of bullying: “It’s a Girl’s World” àbroadcasted in Canada  Bullying could quickly escalate to physical harm  Bullying girls in Canada is on the rise  Researchers in psychology attempt to document and understand such acts in hope of reducing their occurrence  Bullying is traditional and electronic  Some researchers: Marlene Moretti, Tracy Vaillancourt, Debra Pepler and Wendy Craig  One reason why students and researchers drawn to psychology is that it has much to offer in analysis and possible prevention of social problems (by application of scientific method)  Many students associate psychology with study of psychology disorders or abnormal psychology  Sometimes validity of material is less clear From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed  Term psychology comes from two Greek words: -psyche = soul -logos = study of subject th à these two Greek words were put together to define topic of study in 16 century à 18 century: psychology term used (the study of the mind)  Psychology is as old as the human race  Psychology emerged as scientific discipline  Ancient Greek philosophers (Socrates, Plato and Aristotle) debated issues relevant to psychology (like: separation of mind and body and whether knowledge is inborn (nativism) or gained through experience)  Aristotle’s theory of memoryà suggests that memories are result of three principles of association: Similarity, Contrast & Contiguity  Impact of philosophy on development of ideas about mind, behaviour and human nature continued as classical philosophy developed through period of Renaissance, Post- Renaissance  Descartes argued for dualism of mind and body: that mind and body are fundamentally different -mind (soul) being immaterial and Province of God -properties of the body: memory, perception, dreaming and emotions  William Harvey’s: in 1682 said that blood circulation was function of operation of the heart  Physiologist and physicians such as: Roberts Whyte, Franz Gall, Paul Broca and Johannes Muller showed important insights could be gained into workings of the body and brain through application of systematic, empirical methods  Hermann von Helmhotlz: began one of first experimental examinations of human reaction time àargued for separation of sensation and perception as topic of study  Many date emergence of psychology as distinct discipline to work of Wilhelm Wundt Psychology’s intellectual parents were the disciplines of philosophy and physiology Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) – German professor who mounted a campaign to make psychology an independent discipline rather than a stepchilstof philosophy or physiology  succeeded in establishing the 1 formal laboratory for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig  1879 – psychology’s “date of birth” st  established the 1 journal devoted to publishing research on psychology (1881)  characterized as the founder of psychology  psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience st G. Stanley Hall (1846-1924) – established America’s 1 research laboratory in psychology at John Hopkins University in 1883  launched America’s 1 psychology journal  was the driving force behind the establishment of the American Psychological Association st (APA) and was elected its 1 president Structuralism vs. functionalism  Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related  Leader – Edward Titchener (an Englishman who expressed great admiration for Wundt’s work and brought his own version of Wundt’s psychology in America)  Introspection – the careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience (e.g. sensations, feelings, and images) - Subjects required training to be more objective and aware. They were typically exposed to auditory tones, optical illusions, and visual stimuli under carefully controlled and systematically varied conditions and were asked to analyze what they experienced  Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure  Work of William James, American scholar  His landmark, Principles of Psychology(1890), became standard reading for generations of psychologists/ perhaps the most influential text in the history of psychology  Impressed with Charles Darwin’s concept of natural selection - heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be “selected” over time  Consciousness is an important characteristic of our species  Consists of a continuous flow of thoughts (stream of consciousness)  New subjects were introduced (e.g. James Mckeen Cattell & John Dewey began to investigate mental testing, patterns of development in children, the effectiveness of educational practices, and behavioural differences between the sexes)  Margaret Floy Washburn – 1 woman in the U.S. to receive a Ph.D. in psychology  Author of The Animal Mind(1908) – served as a precursor to behaviourism  Leta Hollingworth – did important work on children’s intelligence and was influential in debunking some of the theories current at the time that were proposed to explain why women were “inferior” to men st  Mary Whiton Calkins – 1 woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association Domination in Modern Psychology: Behaviourism and Applied Psychology John B. Watson (1878-1958) – alters psychology’s course as behaviourism: a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour  Psychologists should abandon the study of consciousness altogether and focus exclusively on behaviours that they could observe directly (psychology is to become the science of behaviour)  Behaviour refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism  Nature vs. nurture (behaviour is determined mainly by genetic inheritance – ”nature” – or by environment and experience – “nurture”)  Watson argued that each is made, not born [nurture] Behaviours (“responses”) to observable events in the environment (“stimuli”)  A stimulus is any detectable input from the environment  The behavioural approach is often referred to as stimulus-response (S-R) psychology  Ivan Pavlov – Russian psychologist (1906) showed that dogs could be trained to salivate in response to an auditory stimulus such as a tone  Stimulus-response approach contributed to the rise of animal research in psychology Gestalt psychology – psychology should continue to study conscious experience rather than overt behaviour Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) – Austrian physician, treated people troubled by psychological problems such as irrational fears, obsessions, and anxieties with an innovative procedure he called psychoanalysis  The unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour.  Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour  It steadily gained credence in medicine, the arts, and literature. Thus, psychologists were forced to apply their scientific methods to the topics Freud had studied: personality, motivation, and abnormal behaviour B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) – a young psychologist at Harvard, emerged as a central figure in behaviourism and the history of psychology (Skinner questions free will as behaviourism flourishes)  radical behaviourism – represented a departure from earlier forms of behaviourism and neo- behaviourism  redefined internal, mental events as private events (much more difficult to study) and did not think that they should be given special status when explaining behaviour  psychology could understand and predict behaviour adequately without resorting to physiological explanations  fundamental principle of behaviour: organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes  Skinner could exert remarkable control over the behaviour of animals by manipulating the outcomes of their responses  Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971): all behaviour is fully governed by external stimuli/ people are controlled by their environment, not by themselves/ free will is an illusion The Humanists Revolt  Humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth  Optimistic view of human nature  Carl Rogers (1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) – to fully understand people’s behaviour, psychologists must take into account the fundamental human drive toward personal growth Perspective and Its Principle Subject Matter Basic Premise Influential Period Contributors Behavioural -John B. Watson Effects of environment Only observable events can be (1913 to present) -Ivan Pavlov on the overt behaviour studied scientifically -B.F. Skinner of humans and animals Psychoanalytical -Sigmund Freud Unconsciousness Unconsciousness motives and (1900 to present) -Carl Jung determinants of experiences in early childhood -Alfred Adler behaviour govern personality and mental disorders Humanistic -Carl Rogers Uni
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