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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Variations in Consciousness.docx

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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 5 - Variations in Consciousness The Nature of Consciousness  Samniloquy- sleep talking  Narcolepsy- falling asleep randomly during normal things  Consciousness is the awareness of internal and external stimuli  Stream of consciousness- we are always changing consciousness and things we pay attention to- William James Variations in Awareness and Control  Mind wandering- people’s experience of task-unrelated thoughts. These are thoughts that are not related to what the person is doing. Associated with less accurate awareness of environment  Connection between mind wandering and creativity.  Controlled process- judgements or thoughts we exert control over  Automatic process- without intentional or external control  Judgements are made in a blink of an eye- we really do suck Consciousness and Brain Activity  Consciousness does not arise from any structure of brain but from the connection and communication in the brain  EEG (electroencephalograph) is a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp. Detects brain waves and summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity.  Brain wave tracings are frequency (cycles per second- cps) and amplitude  Beta (13-24 cps), alpha ( 8-12 cps) , theta (4-7 cps) and delta (under 4 cps)  Different patterns are associated with different states of consciousness Biological Rhythms and Sleep  Sleep was more than just a passive activity (in history sleep was not considered to be able to be studied scientifically- it was thought of as a passive activity where nothing happened)  Discovery of REM by William Dement sparked interest in sleep  Biological rhythms: periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning. Internal “biological clocks”  The Role of Circadian Rhythms  Circadian rhythms: 24-hours biological cycles found in humans and many other species (influence regulation of sleep)  Rhythmic variations in blood production, urine production, hormonal secretion and other physical stuff  Alertness, short-term memory and other aspects of cognitive performance  Body temperature related to sleep- awake when hot sleepy when cold  Sleep quality matters more to health than sleep quantity  Light has effect on biological clock (suprachiasmatic nucleus - SCN - sends signals to pineal gland which secrete melatonin that play a key role in adjusting biological clock) Ignoring Circadian Rhythms  “sleep debt”- accumulates when you do not get enough sleep- must be paid back hour for hour  Jet lag- you follow your biological clock and because you are in a different time zone it appears that you slept at the ‘wrong time’. Resetting biological clock needed. A day for each time zone crossed.  Shift workers do not get good sleep and less total sleep. Had trouble getting to sleep and keep sleeping. Melatonin and Circadian Rhythms  Melatonin- regulate human biological clock. Can reduce the effects of jet lag by helping travellers resynchronize their biological clocks.  Timed exposure to bright light can realign circadian rhythms of workers  Rotating shift workers have a difficult ass time. The Sleep and Waking Cycle  Subjects come and sleep in “bedrooms” and are hooked up to things and then researcher observe them through windows  EMG (electromyography)- records muscular activity and tension  EOG (electrooculography)- records eye movements  Record heart rate, temperature, etc also Cycling Through the Stages of Sleep  No obvious transition point between wakefulness and sleep. Also depends on when person last slept, drug intake, boredom level, circadian cycle, etc. Cycle through 5 stages: 1. 1-7 minutes- breathing and heart rate slow down as mucle tension and temperature go down. Theta waves are prominent and alpha waves go away. Hypnic jerks- brief muscular contractions that occur as people fall asleep 2. 10-25 minutes- sleep spindles- brief bursts of higher frequency brain waves. Brain waves become higher in amplitude and lower in frequency 3. Slow-wave sleep: high-amplitude, low-frequency delta waves become prominent in EEG recordings. Reach it in half hour and stay for half hour 4. SWS still th 5. REM( Rapid eye movement): 5 stage of sleep, EEG activity is dominated by high-frequency beta waves that resemble those observed when people are alert and awake.- ripples moving back and forth in eyes. A “deep” stage of sleep and are hard to awaken from. Irregular breathing and pulse rate. Less body movements and paralysis. REM sleep is associated with dreaming- most dreaming reports come from this stage.  Sleep is recollection of what happened in the day  Different stages of sleep – different types of tasks and information. Eg stage 2 for motor related tasks and RE for logical thinking things  REM sleep is a relatively deep stage of sleep marked by a rapid eye movements; high frequency low amplitude brain waves; and vivid dreaming  Non-REM sleep consists of sleep stages 1-4, which are marked by an absence of REM, relatively little dreaming and varied EEG activity  Repetition: people usually repeat sleep cycle about 4 times. First REM period lasts only a few minutes and they get longer as sleep goes on and REM repeats. NREM gets shorter. We all have a signature sleep pattern- stable patterns of sleep each night for each of us  Age Trends in Sleep  Babies- nonREM and REM- often sleep for 16 hours (lucky bastards), spend 50% dreaming in REM sleep :3. Newborns sleep randomly in day but after several months they develop a nighttime sleep period.  REM declines to 30% through remainder of first year, and then goes to 20%.  As adult ages, sleep is more towards light-sleeping and may contribute to elderly people being all awake and creepy at night  Average sleeping time decreases as ages  Culture and Sleep  Co-sleeping: parents and children sleeping together.  Western society- co-sleeping is discouraged tch tch! phenomenon  Many cultures have napping times in afternoons where stores close for a few hours (I WANT!!!). Found in tropical regions of world- adaptive so people can avoid working during hottest times of day The Neural Basis of Sleep  Structures that lie deep within brain seem to be associated with regulation of sleep. Reticular Formation important to sleep  Ascending reticular activating system(ARAS)- afferent fibres running through the reticular formation that influence physiological arousal. Neural regulation of sleep and waking.  Pons and adjacent areas are involved in REM sleep  Medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus and limbic system seem to be involved as well, A constellation of interacting brain centres regulates flow of sleep.  GABA and Serotonin play important roles in regulation of sleep. Norepinephrine, dopamine and acetylcholine influence course of sleep and arousal. As well as other chemicals.  No single brain structure serves as sleep structure or chemical as sleep chemical Doing Without: Sleep Deprivation  Sleep Restriction (partial sleep deprivation): People sleep less than they need to sleep. Less than five hours of sleep is bad and monotonous long-term tasks are bad. Sleep deprivation has a negative impact on functioning. Sleep-deprived people think they are doing good but they actually not doing as good as they think they are(that is why you should always get enough sleep before a test!).  Selective Deprivation: subjects were selectively deprived of REM sleep. REM deprivation has little effect on performance and functioning but has effect of sleep patterns. Subjects shift into REM sleep more frequently when deprived of it. Subjects sleep extra in REM sleep to make up for lost REM sleep. “REM debt “ Similar things happen with slow-wave sleep.  REM and NonREM sleep promote diff types of memory Problems in the Night: Sleep Disorders 78 diff types of sleep disorders  Insomnia- chronic problems in getting adequate sleep. 1. Difficulty in falling asleep 2. Difficulty in remaining asleep 3. Persistent early-morning awakening  Daytime fatigue, impaired functioning and elevated risk of accidents, reducted productivity, absenteeism at work and depression, health problems  Prevalence: 34_35 adults report problems of insomnia and half suffer from severe insomnia. Increases with age and happen in women more than men  “pseudo-insomnia”- only think they are not getting adequate amount of sleep . People underestimate how much sleep they get.  Cause: anxiety, tension, emotional problems, depression, stress, health problems and drug use (cocaine and amphetamines)  Treatment: sedative drugs (sleeping pills) most common treatment. Bad long-term solution and some people use it too much. People can become physically dependent. It could make person sluggish in the daytime. Can reduce REM sleep or SWS sleep. Melatonin can also be used.  Relaxation procedures and behaviourial interventions also work. Produce more long-lasting benefits. Cognitive behavioural therapy also helps- turning negative thoughts into good ones.  Other Sleep problems  Narcolepsy: disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours. Goes from wakefulness into REM directly usually for some minutes (10-20). 0.05% of population,  Sleep apnea: frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep. Happens when person stops breathing for more than 10 seconds. Insomnia is a side effect and is associated with loud snoring.  Nightmare: anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep. Person has difficulty getting back to sleep. Anxiety and depression associated with higher frequency of nightmares. Persistent nightmares are emotional disturbance. Most children go through a lot of this shit  Night terrors (sleep terrors): abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep, accompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feelings of panic. Heart rate goes up a lot. Temporary problem. Usually happen in stage 4 of sleep- person wakes up screaming and sits up and stares into space- happens because of some image  Somnambulis (sleep walking): occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep. Occurs during first 2 hours of sleep. Sleepwalkers are prone to accidents but do not suffer from emotional stuff- seem to have a genetic disposition. The World of Dreams Dreams occur in other stages than REM sleep- even though they are less vivid and more story-like. The Contents of Dreams Most dreams are relatively mundane- in familiar settings doing normal things Females dreamt about negative while males dream about positive Dream is suggested to be a cognitive ability Links between Dreams and Waking Life Dreams are influenced by real life Day residue- stuff in real life in day often goes into dreams the night What happens around person while sleeping may enter into dream (eg. alarm noise from clock turn into loud engine ) Lucid dreaming :D Culture and Dreams Western culture separates “real life” and “dream life” and do not hold much importance to dream life Many cultures give importance to dreams and get information about oneself, the future or the spiritual world from them Theories of Dreaming Freud- wish fulfillment (people did things in dreams they wished they did in real life) Rosalind Cartwright- cognitive, problem-solving view (continuity in sleeping and waking thought, dreams allow people to solve things creatively because there Is no logic and realism) Allan Hobson and McCartley- activation-synthesis model ( dreams are side effects of neural activation that produces ‘wide-awake- brain waves during REM sleep. The cortex in brain makes sense of random signals sent to it by making up dreams. ) Hypnosis: Altered Consciousness or Role Playing? Franz Mesmer- mesmerism – to “mesmerize”- he hypnotized people into believing they did not have illness, FUN STUFF Hypnotism- James Braid a Scottish physician came up with word from Greek word for sleep Many myths exist about hypnosis and on figure 5.15 on page 214 they are cleared Hypnotic Induction and Susceptibility Hypnosis: a systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of s
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