Textbook Notes (362,865)
Canada (158,079)
Psychology (1,851)
PSY100Y5 (771)
Dax Urbszat (643)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Learning.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Chapter 6 - Learning Phobias - irrational fears of specific objects or situations - often the result of another learning process (classical conditioning) Learning - any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience Conditioning - involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment Classical conditioning/Pavlovian conditioning - a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus  Was pioneered by Ivan Pavlov who conditioned dogs to salivate when a tone was presented  Regulates involuntary, reflexive responses (include emotional and physiological responses) Pavlov’s Demonstration: “Psychic Reflexes”  “psychic reflexes”(came to be called conditioned reflex) – dog salivates when presented with meat powder -- dog would also salivate in response to a tone (a neutral stimulus) but when the tone was presented together with the meat powder, dog salivated even only with the tone presented  “Pavlovian conditioning evolve because it increases reproductive fitness” Terminology and Procedures Unconditioned stimulus (US) - a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning. -- [meat powder] Unconditioned response (UR) - an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning. -- [salivation] Conditioned stimulus (CS) - a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response. -- [tone] Conditioned response (CR) - a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning. -- [salivation]  elicited (drawn forth) – automatic or involuntary Trial in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life  Phobia – ex. A girl acquired a bridge phobia (conditioned stimulus) because her father scared her whenever they went over a particular bridge  Puppies and babies are used in advertisements to promote positive associations with their products Conditioning and Physiological Responses  Classical conditioning can lead to immunosuppression – a decrease in the production of antibodies -- a neutral stimulus becomes CS when paired with a drug that chemically causes immunosuppression Classical conditioning influence sexual arousal  -- a quail can be aroused by a red light (when it was paired with opportunities to copulate) Conditioning and Drug Effects  Drug tolerance involves a gradual decline in responsiveness to a drug with repeated use, so that larger and larger doses are required to attain the user’s customary effect  Conditioning with narcotics, stimulants, and alcohol, are called compensatory CRs (only partially compensate for some drug effects) Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning Acquisition: Forming New Responses -- refers to the initial stage of learning something -- acquisition of a conditioned response depends on stimulus contiguity (a temporal association between events/ occurance with another stimulus in time and space) Extinction: Weakening Conditioned Responses -- the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency -- if Pavlov consistently presented only the tone (a CS), it will eventually lose its capability to elicit the response of salivating (CR) Spontaneous Recovery: Resurrecting Responses -- the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus -- the dog still responded (a weak response) to the tone after a “rest interval” ( a period of non-exposure to the CS) -- renewal effect - if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place -- extinction does not appear to lead to unlearning Stimulus Generalization -- occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus -- the more similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the generalization Stimulus Discrimination – occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus -- ex. your dog learned to respond to only your car and not to anybody else’s since it knew what your car sounds like -- the less similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater likelihood (and ease) of discrimination High-Order Conditioning -- a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus -- the dog will salivate in response to the red light (which is paired with the tone) Operant conditioning - a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences  Was pioneered by B.F. Skinner who showed that rats and pigeons tend to repeat responses that are followed by favourable outcomes Mainly regulates voluntary, spontaneous responses (ex: studying, going to work, telling jokes,  and asking someone out) Thorndike’s Law of Effect Instrumental learning - operant conditioning is instrumental in obtaining some desired outcome Law of effect if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened o Both provided the foundation for the study of operant conditioning Skinner’s Demonstration: It’s All a Matter of Consequences Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response -- response strengthened because it leads to rewarding consequences Terminology and Procedures Operant chamber (Skinner box) - a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled -- operant responses tend to be voluntary (emitted/sent forth) Reinforcement contingencies are the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers Cumulative recorder creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time -- Rapid response rate produces a steep slope, whereas a slow response rate produces a shallow slope Primary reinforcers - events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers - events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning Acquisition and Shaping -- Acquisition - initial stage of learning some new pattern of responding  Occurs when a response gradually increases due to contingent reinforcement -- Shaping - consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response Extinction -- refers to the gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency because the response is no longer followed by reinforcers -- Resistance to extinction occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer has been terminated Stimulus Control: Generalization and Discrimination Generalization occurs when responding increases in the presence of a stimulus that resembles the original discriminative stimulus Discrimination occurs when responding does not increase in the presence of a stimulus that resembles the original discriminative stimulus Discriminative stimuli are cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response Schedules of Reinforcement -- determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer -- Continuous reinforcement occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced -- Intermittent (partial) reinforcement occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time -- With a fixed-ratio
More Less

Related notes for PSY100Y5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.