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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Intelligence and Psychological Testing.docx

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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 9 - Intelligence and Psychological Testing Key Concepts in Psychological Testing  Psychological test: a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour. Psychological tests measure the individual differences that exist among people’s abilities, aptitudes, interests and aspects of personality.  Test scores should be interpreted cautiously because its only a sample of you- not a characteristic Principal Types of Tests Mental Ability Tests  Intelligence tests: measure general mental ability- measure intellectual potential.  Aptitude tests: Asses specific types of mental abilities. Like logic, space relationships, language, etc.  Achievement tests: gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects. English, history, etc. Personality Tests  Measure various aspects of personality, including motive, interests, values and attitude Standardization and Norms  Standardization: the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test.  Test norms: provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test  A percentile score: indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score on obtained  Standardization group- sample of people that the norms are based on Reliability  Refers to the measurement consistency of a test (or other kinds of measurement techniques), eg. if a test is taken on two different occasions and people score similar than it is reliable and if people score different each time then it is not reliable  Correlation coefficient: a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables. If same score on both tests than positive correlation. Validity  The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure- determines the usefulness or accuracy of inferences or decisions based on a test. Content validity  The degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it’s supposed to cover. Eg. prof putting stuff on test that was never covered in class or readings Criterion-Related Validity  Estimated by correlating subject’s scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) if the trait assessed by the test. Comparing pilot tests scores with actual flying. Construct Validity  The extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetic construct (creativity, independence, etc) The Evolution of Intelligence Testing Galton’s Studies of Heredity Genius  Galton was related to Charles Darwin. He discounted the fact that upper class people get better education and upbringing and that might contribute to higher intelligence  Book Hereditary Genius (1869) - conclusion that success runs in families b/c great intelligence is hereditary  Concentrated on sensory skills Binet’s Breakthrough  Concentrate on abstract reasoning instead of sensory skills  Mental age: indicates that he or she displays the mental ability typical of a child of that chronological (Actual) age. Mental age of a child would be the mental ability of typical children who have the actual age of that mental age Terman and the Stanford-Binet  Intelligence quotient (IQ): a child’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100  Made comparisons between children possible Wechsler’s Innovations  Made IQ tests for adults- Wecher Adult Intelligence Scale  Scales are less dependent on verbal ability  Compute separate scores for verbal IQ, performance (nonverbal) IQ, and full-scale (total) IQ  New scoring scheme based on normal distribution Intelligence Testing Today  Individual tests: administered by psychologists but is extremely expensive  Group tests: administered to a large group and is cheaper Basic Questions about Intelligence Testing What Kinds of Questions Are on Intelligence Tests?  Varies from test to test  Depends on what groups being tested  Have subtests so covers variety of types of questions (figure 9.6) What do Modern IQ Scores Mean?  Normal distribution: a symmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population.  Most IQ tests have adopted this  Modern IQ tests indicate where you fall in normal distribution  Deviation IQ scores: locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the start deviation as the unit of measurement  Standard deviation (15 points) Do Intelligence Tests Measure Potential or Knowledge?  IQ tests measure intellectual potential  IQ measures a blend of knowledge and potential- test developers try to balance this Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Validity?  Most IQ tests are valid  When people are retested they tend to score the same  IQ tests are reliable  The validly of IQ tests is questionable when applied to real life  IQ tests measures success in school  Positive correlations in school grades and IQ tests  IQ assess three parts of intelligence: social, practical and verbal and abstract reasoning and verbal fluency  Everything else like artistic talent, problem solving, etc is not tested  High anxiety or low motivation can screw up results Do Intelligence Tests Predict Vocational Success?  People who score high in IQ are more likely to have high-status jobs  A lot of people with lower IQs are in high-status jobs, so determination and hard-work matter  The relationship between income and IQ is weak Are IQ Tests Widely Used in Other Cultures?  Yes, but it has mixed reviews from other countries  Western used it widely and frequently  Tests have been well received in Japan; but they have been resisted in China and India  Different cultures would require different tests- maybe tests that are not based on “intelligence”, tests can be on an intelligence that the culture considers to be intelligence (like art or something) Extremes of Intelligence  Should not be based only on IQ scores Mental Retardation/ Intellectual Disability  Refers to subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18. Adaption is everyday living such as communication, self-care, social interaction, health/safety, etc Levels of retardation  Four levels: Mild (51-70 needs help with stress, considered normal outside school), moderate (36-50 needs help with mild stress), severe (20-35 needs total supervision) or profound (below 20 requires total care). Figure 9.2  2%- 3% of population is intellectually disabled  Majority have mild only Origins of Retardation  Down syndrome  FXS- activation of neurons irrelevant to the context or task at hand  Phenylketonuria-metabolic disorder  Hydrocephaly- excessive fluid in brain that destroys brain and causes retardation  Most retarded kids are from lower economic families where the families may be abusive or neglecting and unable to provide the kids with proper care, food and shelter. Giftedness Identifying Gifted Children  Have high emphasis on IQ scores although experts say this should not be it  Most children who are in high 2%-3% of IQ are considered to be gifted Personal Qualities of the Gifted  High height, weight, strength, physical health, emotional adjustment, mental health and social maturity  Profoundly gifted children (180 IQ) are socially awkward penguins Giftedness and Achievement in Life Only become eminent adults if they have:  Exceptional intelligence or ability in specific domain  Exceptional commitment (motivation)  Exceptional creativity Hidden gifted:  Underachieve in school (as a result of attitude)  Can`t afford educational programs `SCIberMENTOR`- mentoring program for girls (mentored in science and math via
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