Key terms, chapter 1.
Applied psychology, 15 – Branch oh psychology concerned with every day, practical problem.
Behaviour, 7 – Behavior refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism. You were
able to study anything people say or do.
Behaviourism, 7 – Theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study
only observable behavior
Clinical psychology, 15 – Branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of
psychological problems and disorders.
Cognition, 16 – Mental process in acquiring knowledge, involves thinking or conscious experience.
Critical thinking, 38 – use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desirable
Culture, 29 – refers to the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and others
products of a community that are transmitted social across generations.
Empiricism, 28- that knowledge should be acquired through observation, visual interactions to learn
Ethnocentrism, 18 – the tendency to view one’s own group as superior to others and as the standard for
judging the worth foreign
Evolutionary psychology, 20 examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for
members of a species over the course of many generations.
Functionalism, 6 – based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of
consciousness, rather than its structure
Humanism, 12 – theoretical orientation that emphasizes that unique qualities of humans, especially
their freedom and their potential for personal growth
Introspection, 6 – The careful, systematic, self-observation of one’s own conscious experience
Natural Selection, 6 – heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are
more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations thus come to be
“selected” over time.
Positive psychology, 22 – uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive creative
and fulfilling aspects of human existence.
Psychiatry, 26 – a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological
problems and disorders. Psychoanalytic theory, 9 – attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing
on unconscious determinants of behaviour
Psychology, 23 – the science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that
underlie it and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical
SQ3R, 35 – Study system designed to promote effective reading, which includes 5 steps: survey,
question, read, recite, and review.
Stimulus, 7 – a detectable input from the environment
Structuralism, 6 – based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into basic
elements and investigate how these elements are related
Testwiseness, 36 – the ability to use the characteristics and format of a cognitive test to maximize ones
Theory, 28 – a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
Unconscious, 9 – contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious
awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour Key terms, Chapter 2
Anecdotal evidence, 80 – consist of personal stories about specific incidents and experiences
Case study, 55 – in depth investigation of an individual subject
Confounding of variables, 51 – occurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it
difficult to sort out their specific effects
Control group, 50 – consists of subjects who do not receive special treatment given to the experimental
Correlation, 62 – exists when two variables are related to each other.
Correlation effect, 62 – Numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables, indicates
the direction of the relationship (positive, or negative) and how strongly they are related
Data collection techniques, 46 – procedures to make empirical observation and measurements
Dependent variable, 49 – the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent
Descriptive statistics, 59 – used to organize and summarize data
Double-blind procedure, 69 – a research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know
which subjects are in the experimental or control groups
Experiment, 49 – research method used in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully
controlled conditions and observers whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result
Experimental group, 50 – consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the
Experimenter bias, 69 – occurs when a researchers expectations or preferences about the outcome of a
stud influences the results obtained
Extraneous variables, 51 – any variables that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific
Frequency distribution, 59 – orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of each score or a
group of scores
Frequency polygon, 59 – a line figure used to present data from a frequency distribution
Hypothesis, 44 – a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
Independent variable, 49 – a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on
another variable Inferential statistics, 64 – used to interpret data and draw conclusions
Internet-mediated research, 72 – refers to studies in which data collection is done using the web
Journal, 48 – is a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined
area of inquiry
Mean, 59 – arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution
Median, 59 – the score that falls exactly in the centre of a distribution of scores
Meta-analysis, 66 – the combination of the statistical results of many studies of the same question,
yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of variables effects
Mode, 59 – the most frequent score in a distribution
Naturalistic observation, 54 – a researcher engages in careful observation of behaviour without
intervening directly with the research subjects or participants
Negatively skewed distribution, 59 – Page 60 Figure B
Normal distribution, 61 – a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many
human characteristics are dispersed in the population
Operational definition, 46 – describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a
Participants, 46 – are the persons or animals whose behaviour is systematically observed in a study
Percentile score, 61 – indicates the percentage of people who score at or below a particular score
Placebo effects, 67 – occurs when participants expectations lead them to experience some change even
though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment
Population, 66 – much larger collection of animals or people (from which the sample is drawn) that
researchers want to generalize about
Positively skewed distribution, 59 – page 60 figure C
Random assignment, 51 – occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group
or condition in the study
Reactivity, 54 – occurs when a subject’s behaviour is altered by the presence of the observer
Replication, 65 – is the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated.
Research methods, 49 – consist of various approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation,
and control of variables in empirical studies Response set, 69 – is a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the
content of the question
Sample, 66 – the collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
Sampling bias, 67 – exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was
Social desirability, 68 – the tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
Standard deviation, 60 – an index of the amount of variability in a set of data
Statistical significance, 65 – said to exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to
chance is very low
Statistics, 58 – the use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data
Subjects, 46 – persons or animals whose behaviours is systematically observed in a study (same as
Survey, 56 – researchers use questionnaires or interviews to ga