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Chapter 1-3

Key terms Chapters 1-3.docx

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Dax Urbszat

Key terms, chapter 1. Applied psychology, 15 – Branch oh psychology concerned with every day, practical problem. Behaviour, 7 – Behavior refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism. You were able to study anything people say or do. Behaviourism, 7 – Theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior Clinical psychology, 15 – Branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders. Cognition, 16 – Mental process in acquiring knowledge, involves thinking or conscious experience. Critical thinking, 38 – use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome Culture, 29 – refers to the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and others products of a community that are transmitted social across generations. Empiricism, 28- that knowledge should be acquired through observation, visual interactions to learn Ethnocentrism, 18 – the tendency to view one’s own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth foreign Evolutionary psychology, 20 examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations. Functionalism, 6 – based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure Humanism, 12 – theoretical orientation that emphasizes that unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth Introspection, 6 – The careful, systematic, self-observation of one’s own conscious experience Natural Selection, 6 – heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations thus come to be “selected” over time. Positive psychology, 22 – uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence. Psychiatry, 26 – a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders. Psychoanalytic theory, 9 – attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour Psychology, 23 – the science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems. SQ3R, 35 – Study system designed to promote effective reading, which includes 5 steps: survey, question, read, recite, and review. Stimulus, 7 – a detectable input from the environment Structuralism, 6 – based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into basic elements and investigate how these elements are related Testwiseness, 36 – the ability to use the characteristics and format of a cognitive test to maximize ones score Theory, 28 – a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations Unconscious, 9 – contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour Key terms, Chapter 2 Anecdotal evidence, 80 – consist of personal stories about specific incidents and experiences Case study, 55 – in depth investigation of an individual subject Confounding of variables, 51 – occurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects Control group, 50 – consists of subjects who do not receive special treatment given to the experimental group. Correlation, 62 – exists when two variables are related to each other. Correlation effect, 62 – Numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables, indicates the direction of the relationship (positive, or negative) and how strongly they are related Data collection techniques, 46 – procedures to make empirical observation and measurements Dependent variable, 49 – the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable Descriptive statistics, 59 – used to organize and summarize data Double-blind procedure, 69 – a research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups Experiment, 49 – research method used in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observers whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result Experimental group, 50 – consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variables. Experimenter bias, 69 – occurs when a researchers expectations or preferences about the outcome of a stud influences the results obtained Extraneous variables, 51 – any variables that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study Frequency distribution, 59 – orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of each score or a group of scores Frequency polygon, 59 – a line figure used to present data from a frequency distribution Hypothesis, 44 – a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables Independent variable, 49 – a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable Inferential statistics, 64 – used to interpret data and draw conclusions Internet-mediated research, 72 – refers to studies in which data collection is done using the web Journal, 48 – is a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry Mean, 59 – arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution Median, 59 – the score that falls exactly in the centre of a distribution of scores Meta-analysis, 66 – the combination of the statistical results of many studies of the same question, yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of variables effects Mode, 59 – the most frequent score in a distribution Naturalistic observation, 54 – a researcher engages in careful observation of behaviour without intervening directly with the research subjects or participants Negatively skewed distribution, 59 – Page 60 Figure B Normal distribution, 61 – a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many human characteristics are dispersed in the population Operational definition, 46 – describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable Participants, 46 – are the persons or animals whose behaviour is systematically observed in a study Percentile score, 61 – indicates the percentage of people who score at or below a particular score Placebo effects, 67 – occurs when participants expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment Population, 66 – much larger collection of animals or people (from which the sample is drawn) that researchers want to generalize about Positively skewed distribution, 59 – page 60 figure C Random assignment, 51 – occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study Reactivity, 54 – occurs when a subject’s behaviour is altered by the presence of the observer Replication, 65 – is the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated. Research methods, 49 – consist of various approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies Response set, 69 – is a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the question Sample, 66 – the collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study Sampling bias, 67 – exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn Social desirability, 68 – the tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself. Standard deviation, 60 – an index of the amount of variability in a set of data Statistical significance, 65 – said to exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low Statistics, 58 – the use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data Subjects, 46 – persons or animals whose behaviours is systematically observed in a study (same as participants) Survey, 56 – researchers use questionnaires or interviews to ga
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