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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Development.docx

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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 11 - Development Development is the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development Zygote - a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg The prenatal period extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy The Course of Prenatal Development  Germinal stage o The germinal stage - first 2 weeks after conception o The placenta is a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother  Embryonic stage o The embryonic stage - 2 weeks until the end of 2 months of gestation  Period of great vulnerability  Fetal Stage o The fetal stage - 2 months to birth o 22 - 26 weeks baby reaches the age of viability—the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development Maternal Nutrition  Expectant mothers must follow the Canada's Food Guide to encounter only few difficulties regarding weight and nutrition  Increase risk of birth complications and neurological defects  Prenatal malnutrition increases child's chances of having schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders  Low birth weight = increase risk of heart disease and diabetes Maternal Drug Use  Fetal alcohol syndrome is a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy o Most common cause of mental retardation Maternal Illness  Genital herpes & AIDS can be transmitted o Herpes can cause microcephaly, paralysis, deafness, blindness, brain damage The Wondrous Years of Childhood Exploring the World: Motor Development Motor development refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities  Basic Principles o Cephalocaudal trend—the head-to-foot direction of motor development o Proximodistal trend is the center-outward direction of motor development o Maturation is development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic blueprint  Understanding Developmental Norms o Developmental norms indicate the typical (median) age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities  Cultural Variations and Their Significance o Advance motor skill development depends on environmental factors like whether the baby receives early or late training. Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament  Temperament refers to characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity o Established by 2-3 months old  In a longitudinal design investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time o More sensitive to developmental influences and changes  In a cross-sectional design investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time o Quick/cheap  Cohort effects occur when differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in different time periods  Thomas and Chess 3 basic styles of temperament: o Easy children - happy, regular in sleeping eating, adaptable, not readily upset o Slow-to-warm-up children - less cheery, less regular in sleeping eating, slower in adapting to change o Difficult children - glum, erratic in sleeping eating, resistant to change, relatively irritable o Temperament at 3 months - good predictor of temperament at 10 years old  Research work of Jerome Kagan o Inhibited temperament - shy, timid, and wary of unfamiliar objects o Uninhibited temperament - less restrained, approach unfamiliar things o Genetic basis o Stable into middle childhood o Can be changed by parental reactions and other social experiences Early Emotional Development: Attachment  Attachment refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers  Separation anxiety—emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment  Harry Harlow's research on infant rhesus monkeys o Mothers are more than a conditioned reinforcer  John Bowlby o Biological basis for attachment (infants are programmed to emit behaviour that trigger an affectionate response)  Patterns of Attachment o Mary Ainsworth - more sensitive/ responsive = more secure attachment  Other factors of correlation maternal sensitivity and attachment security:  Infants are active participants  Attachments follow three patterns:  Secure attachment - child tends to be playful, less inhibited, exploration- oriented, sociable  Anxious-ambivalent attachment - child tends to engage in visual checking; signalling to re-establish contact, calling, pleading; moving to re-establish contact, clinging  Avoidant attachment - child tends to maintain proximity while avoiding close contact  Fourth category: Disorganized-disoriented attachment - child appears confused whether to approach or avoid mom/ insecure o Child develop internal working models based on attachment  Secure attachment = more advance cognitive development/ healthier intimate relationships  Day Care and Attachment o (Jay Belsky) Infant who spent more than 20 hrs in daycare has increase risk of insecure attachments  the proportion of daycare infants who have insecure attachments is only slightly higher then the norm  Daycare is not harmful to children's attachment relationships  Daycare can have beneficial effects on social development  Culture and Attachment o Separation anxiety emerges at 6-8 months/ peaks at 14-18 months o Avoidant/ anxious ambivalent attachment varies among cultures o Secure attachment is the most common Becoming Unique: Personality Development  A stage is a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established o Stage theories assume that:  Individuals must progress through specified stages in a particular order b/c each stage builds on the previous one  Progress through these stages is strongly related to age  Development is marked by major discontinuities that usher in dramatic transitions in behaviour  Erikson’s Stage Theory o Trust Versus Mistrust (1st yr)  First year of life, if the needs of the infant are met then the infant will develop an optimistic, trusting attitude towards others and if the needs are met poorly then child will be pessimistic and distrusting o Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (2nd and 3rd yrs)  Second and third years, toilet training, must take some self-responsibility, if its good then child will be self-sufficient but if parents are dissatisfied with the child, the child will have a sense of personal shame and self-doubt o Initiative Versus Guilt (4-6 yrs)  Ages 3-6, Children experiment, develop independence and parents need to give room for that o Industry Versus Inferiority (6-puberty)  6-puberty, how to function socially, learn to value achievement and take pride in accomplishment  Evaluating Erikson’s Theory • It generates a lot of research so its good • Relied on illustrative case studies that can be interpreted many ways • Provides ideal development patterns which are unrealistic The Growth of Thought: Cognitive Development  Cognitive development refers to transitions in youngsters’ patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving  Overview of Piaget’s Stage Theory o Sensorimotor Period (birth - 2 yrs)  Infants develop ability to coordinate sensory input with motor actions  Innate reflexes  Object permanence develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible o Preoperational Period (2 -7)  Improve on using of mental images, progress in symbolic thought.  Conservation is Piaget’s term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance  Centration is the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects  Irreversibility is the inability to envision reversing an action  Egocentrism in thinking is characterized by a limited ability to share another person’s viewpoint  Animism—the belief that all things are living o Concrete Operational Period (7-11) • Children can do operations only on tangible things that are real • Develop new problem
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