Textbook Notes (369,138)
Canada (162,411)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY100Y5 (809)
Dax Urbszat (681)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Motivation and Emotion.docx

11 Pages

Course Code
Dax Urbszat

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 11 pages of the document.
Chapter 10 - Motivation and Emotion Motivational Theories and Concepts Motivation involves goal-directed behavior Drive Theories  Concept of Clark Hull (derived from Walter Cannon's)  Organisms seek to maintain homeostasis - a state of physiological equilibrium or stability  A drive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension (ex: you eat to reduce discomfort and because you are hungry )  Drive theories cannot explain all motivation (ex: "thirst for knowledge") Incentive Theories  External stimuli regulate motivational states  An incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior  Expectancy-value models: motivation depends on two factors a. Expectancy about one's chances of attaining the incentive (ability) b. The value of the desired incentive (appeal) Drive vs. Incentive: Push vs. Pull Theories  Drive: internal states of tension push people in certain directions  Incentive: external stimuli pull people in certain directions Evolutionary Theories  Human motives and those of other species are the products of evolution  Explain motives such as affiliation, achievement, dominance, aggression, and sex drive  Ex. Dominance is greater in men: a. Females may prefer mating with dominant males b. Dominant males may poach females from subordinate males c. Dominant males may intimidate male rivals in competition for sexual access d. Dominant males may acquire more material resources which may increase mating opportunities The Range and Diversity of Human Motives  Biological motives (10-15)  Social motives (unlimited) The Motivation of Hunger and Eating Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger 1912 study by Walter Cannon and A.L. Washburn: correlation between stomach contractions and experience of hunger  Brain Regulation o Parts of the hypothalamus that are elements in the neural circuitry that regulates hunger but are not the key elements and are not simple on-off centres: i. Lateral hypothalamus (LH) - involves in the interest of eating ii. Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) - involves in the feeling of fullness o Recently discovered, another area of the hypothalamus play a larger role in the modulation of hunger: paraventricular nucleus - contain a group of neurons that are sensitive to incoming hunger signals and another group of neurons that respond to satiety signals o Neurotransmitters involved: neuropeptide Y, serotonin, GABA, ghrelin(play a role in stimulating hunger), orexins, cannabinoids(resemble active ingredient in marijuana) o Ghrelin - a neurotransmitter in the nervous system and a hormone in the endocrine system (increase ghrelin = increase food intake)  Glucose and Digestive Regulation o Most food are converted to glucose -- a simple sugar that is an important source of energy (decrease blood glucose level = increase hunger) o Glucostatic Theory: fluctuations in blood glucose level(can make people feel satiated accdg to Jean Mayer) are monitored in the brain by glucostats—neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid o Stomach regulates hunger - partly correct. (cells send signals to the brain that inhibit further eating)  Hormonal Regulation o Insulin (secreted in the pancreas) - increased hunger o (demonstrated by Judith Rodin) Sight and smell of food can stimulate the secretion of insulin o Insulin plays a role in the fluctuation of hunger o Leptin (produced by fat cells and released into the blood stream) - provides hypothalamus w/ info about body's fat stores o Increase leptin = decrease hunger o Leptin inhibits the release of neuropeptide Y which leads to activity in the paraventicular nucleus of the hypothalamus which inhibits eating Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger  Food Availability and Related Cues a. Palatability - the better the food taste, the more people consume it b. Quantity available - the more food served, the more people eat c. Variety - the more diverse foods served, the more tendency to eat d. Environmental cues - hunger is aroused by pictures, written descriptions, video depictions of attractive foods e. Social cues - the presence of others inhibits eating (research by Herman and Polivy)  Learned Preferences and Habits o Preferences are acquired through learning (diff. cultures show diff. food consumption) o Preference for sweets (present at birth) o Preference for high-fat foods (partly genetic) o Unlearned preference for salt (at age of four months) o Taste preferences are partly a function of learned associations formed through classical conditioning o Taste aversions are acquired through conditioning as well o Eating habits are shaped by observational learning (a kid is most likely to try a new food when an adult tries it first)  Stress and Eating o Stress leads to increased eating in a substantial portion of people o Stress-induced eating is common among chronic dieters o Some believes that it is a physiological arousal; others say it is aroused by negative emotions o This is not effective because eating does not usually lead to lasting mood Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity  Obesity - the condition of being overweight  Body m2ss index (BMI) - an individual's weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared (kg/m )  Rate of obesity in Canada is 15% lower than that in the US, where one out of every 5 adults is obese  Obesity lowers life expectancy: 7.1 years for females and 5.8 years for males  Male are more likely to go from normal to overweight/ female are more likely to go from overweight to obese  Obese people are more prone to diseases Genetic Predisposition  Identical twins reared apart have far more similar BMI than fraternal twins reared together  Some people inherit a genetic vulnerability to obesity Excessive Eating and Inadequate Exercise  Energy intake is greater than energy expenditure The Concept of Set Point a. (Richard Keesey) Set-point theory proposes that the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly stable.  People who lose weight on a diet have a strong tendency to gain back all the weight (and vice versa) because the body has a set-point b. (John Pinel) Settling-point theory proposes that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieve an equilibrium  Casts a much wider net than set-point theory  Suggests that an obese person's settling point will drift downward without active resistance if they make changes in their lifestyle Dietary Restraint  Vacillations in dietary restraint contribute to obesity  Chronic dieters constantly control eating and when this is disrupted, they become disinhibited and overeat  Example of events that can disrupt controlled eating o drinking alcohol o experiencing emotional distress o perception that they have cheated on their diet(most common) o anticipation of food deprivation o sensitivity to media's portrayal of idealized thin body types Eating Disorders  Anorexia nervosa - a disorder in which most young women literally starve themselves, sometimes to death  Bulimia nervosa - most young women alternate between binge eating and purging  More prevalent in women Sexual Motivation and Behavior  Sex is essential to the survival of a species but not to an individual's survival  Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are related to practice of sex w/o condom Determinants of Sexual Desire  Hormonal Regulation a. Estrogens are the principal class of gonadal hormones in females b. Androgens are the principal class of gonadal hormones in males o Both hormones are produced in both sexes but in different amounts o Removal of these hormones result in lack of sexual interest o Hypogonadism - an endocrine disorder where male adults exhibit abnormal levels of androgens and reduced sexual motivation, which can be revived by hormone replacement therapy o Higher levels of testosterone correlate w/ higher rates of sexual activity in both genders o Hormonal fluctuations probably have a small impact on sexual desire (current conclusion) Evolutionary Analyses of Human Sexual Behaviour  (Robert Trivers) Parental investment theory - a species' mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest -- in terms of time, energy, and survival risk -- to produce and nurture offspring o "members of the sex that makes the smaller investment (males in most species) will pursue mating opportunities vigorously and compete with each other for these opportunities, whereas members of the sex that makes the larger investment (females in most species) will tend to be more conservative and discriminating about mating behavior"  Gender Differences in Patterns of Sexual Activity o Males generally show a greater interest than females do o Males are more motivated than women to pursue sex with a variety of partners o Men are much more likely than women to have sex with someone they had known for only a brief period  Gender Differences in Mate Preferences Evolutionary theory suggests that: o Males: have little interest in long-term mating commitments  look for females with good reproductive potential who would be sexually faithful and effective in nurturing children  Place more emphasis on youthfulness and attractiveness o Females: look for males who could provide material resources and protect his family and who were dependable and willing to invest his resources in his family  Place more emphasis on partner characteristics (ex. Intelligence, ambition, income, and social status) o Does not reflect conscious strategies (these are subconscious preferences) o David Buss test the hypothesis that men place more emphasis on youthfulness/attractiveness (He proved it right) Featured Study Can Women Judge Men’s Mate Potential in Just One Glance?  Men(mean age of 21) took test to find how much they like children and take saliva to test testosterone level, women(mean age of 18) rated men "likes children" "masculine" "physically attractive" "kind"  Result: masculinity and testosterone levels correlated moderately well (0.34) o Liking children and males test scores correlated well (0.38)  Women can draw meaningful inferences about males' parental interest based on a brief exposure to a single photograph  Criticism and Alternative Explanations o Findings do not paint a very flattering picture of human nature (males look like sordid sexual predators and female like cynical, greedy materialists) o Critics thought that females emphasis on material resources could be a byproduct of cultural and economic forces
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.