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Canada (161,665)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY100Y5 (809)
Dax Urbszat (681)
Chapter 11

PSY100 Chapter 11 Textbook Notes.doc
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Semester
Fall

Description
Notes From Reading C HAPTER 11: H UMAN D EVELOPMENT A CROSS THE L IFESPAN I. Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development A. Introduction 1. Development – the sequence of age related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death. Incl both biological and behavioral changes. 2. Zygote – a one celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg. 3. Prenatal Period – period from conception to birth, aprox. 9 months, marked by rapid development, until tapering off before birth. B. The Course of Prenatal Development 1. Germinal Stage – first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first 2 weeks after conception. a. Begins when zygote is created through fertilization. b. Placenta – structure that allows oxygen and other nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother. Takes place during implantation process. 2. Embryonic Stage – second stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 weeks until the end of the second month. a. Most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing organism known as an embryo. b. Heart, spine, brain form 3. Fetal Stage – the 3rd stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months through birth. a. Rapid bodily growth, muscles and bones begin to form. b. Known as a fetus. c. Age of Viability – the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth (i.e. 22-26 weeks) C. Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development 1. Maternal Nutrition – severe maternal malnutrition can lead to increases in the birth complications and neurological defects of a newborn. 2. Maternal Drug Use – major source of concern about fetal and infant well being, as many drugs consumed by a pregnant women can be passed on to the placenta. a. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy. Incl. hyperactivity, retarded mental and motor development. 3. Maternal Illness – fetus is defenseless against infections because its immune system matures relatively late in the prenatal period. May incl. AIDS, Flu, etc. 4. Prenatal Health Care – good quality medical care that begins early in pregnancy is associated with reduce prematurity and higher survival rates for infants. II. The Wondrous Years of Childhood A. Exploring the World: Motor Development 1. Motor Development – refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities. 2. Basic Principles – 1/7 Notes From Reading C HAPTER 11: H UMAN D EVELOPMENT ACROSS THE L IFESPAN a. Cephalocaudal trend – the head to foot direction of motor development. i.e. children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the lower part. b. Proximodistal trend – center-outward direction of motor development. i.e. children gain control of their torso before their extremities. c. Early motor development depends on physical growth and maturation. d. Maturation – the development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic blueprint. Product of genetically programmed physical changes that come with age. 3. Understanding Developmental Norms a. Developmental Norms – indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities. Useful benchmarks. 4. Cultural Variations and Their Significance a. Highlights the relationship between experience and maturation – i.e. practice. b. Early motor development depends on maturation. Later motor development acquire more specialized motor skills which may be unique to their culture. B. Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament 1. Temperament – characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity. 2. Longitudinal Design – investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time. More sensitive to developmental influences and changes. 3. Cross Sectional Design – investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time. Quicker, easier, and cheaper. 4. Thomas and Chess – found that temperamental individuality is established by the time the infant is 2-3 months old. 3 Basic Styles: a. Easy Children – tend to be happy, regular in sleep, eating, adaptable, not readily upset b. Slow to Warm Up Children – tended to be less cheery, less regular in sleep and eating, slower in adapting to change. Wary of new experiences, and emotional reactivity is moderate c. Difficult children – glum, erratic in sleep and eating, resistant to change, and relatively irritable. d. Child’s temperament at 3 months was good indicator of later temperament. 5. Kagan – relied on direct observation of children in study of temperaments a. Inhibited Temperament – shyness, timidity, wariness of unfamiliar people, objects and events. b. Uninhibited Temperament – less restrained, approaching unfamiliar people, objects, and events with little hesitation. c. Reasonably stable. C. Early Emotional Development: Attachment 1. Attachment – the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers. 2/7 Notes From Reading C HAPTER 11: H UMAN D EVELOPMENT ACROSS THE L IFESPAN 2. Between 6-8 months, infants begin to show a preference for mum’s company. And often protest when separated. 3. Separation Anxiety – emotional distress seen in many infants when they have formed an attachment. Peaks around 14-18 months. 4. Patterns of Attachment – a. Mothers who are sensitive and responsive to their child’s needs tend to evoke more secure attachments than mums who don’t. b. Ainsworth – found that infant mother attachments follow 3 patterns – i. Secure attachment – play and explore with comfortably with mum present, become visibly upset when she leaves and are quickly calmed by her return ii. Anxious Ambivalent Attachment – appear anxious even when their mum is near and protest excessively when she leaves, but they are not particularly comforted when she returns. iii. Avoidant Attachment – seek little contact with their mothers and often are not distressed when she leaves. 5. Effects of Secure Attachment – infants who are securely attached to mums tend to exhibit secure attachments with father, be more resilient, competent toddlers with high self esteem, display more patience, curiosity, self reliance and leadership, social skills, close friends. a. Relationship between secure attachment and more advanced cognitive development in childhood and adolescence. 6. Bonding at Birth, Day Care, and Attachment - a. Klaus – suggests skin to skin contact between a new born and its mum after birth can promote more effective attachment later. b. Difficult to demonstrate. 7. Culture and Attachment – Attachment is a universal feature of human development. 8. Evolutionary Perspectives on Attachment – a. Bowlby assumed attachment to be part of natural selection, as infants are biologically programmed to emit behavior that triggers an affectionate protective response from parents. b. Belsky – nature of children’s early attachment experiences depend on the character of their environments, and that these experiences chart the course of children’s social development in ways that are adaptive for their environmental circumstances. D. Becoming Unique: Personality Development 1. Freud – claimed basic foundation of a person’s personality is laid down by age 5. 2. Erikson – concluded that events in early childhood leave a permanent stamp on adult personality, but continues to evolve over entire life. 3. Stage – developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established. a. Stage theories assume that: i) individuals must progress through specified stages in a particular order because each builds on the previous, ii) progress through these stages is strongly related to age iii) 3/7 Notes From Reading C HAPTER 11: H UMAN D EVELOPMENT A CROSS THE L IFESPAN development is marked by major discontinuities that usher in dramatic transitions in behavior. 4. Erikson’s Stage Theory – partitioned life span into 8 stages which have a psychosocial crisis involving transitions in important social relationships. Personality is shaped by how individuals deal with these psychosocial crises. a. Trust vs. Mistrust – first stage occurs in 1st year of life when infant has to depend completely on adults to take care of needs. If infant’s basic needs are met by its caregivers, the child should develop an optimistic, trusting attitude. b. Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt – 2-3 yrs. When parents begin to regulate child’s behavior. Child must take some personal responsibility, and if successful, acquires sense of self sufficiency. c. Initiative vs. Guilt – 3-6 yrs. Children experiment and take initiatives that may conflict with parent’s rules. If successful, child will retain sense of initiative while retaining respect of rights and privileges. Over controlling parents may instill feelings of gui
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