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Chapter 6

PSY100 Chapter 6 Summary

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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 6 - Learning: relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience - Conditioning: learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment - Phobias: irrational fears of specific objects or situations - Classic conditioning: a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another response; Pavlovian - Ivan Pavlov: Russian physiologist who worked on digestion accidentally found that dogs could to conditioned to salivate to things (neutral stimulus) other than food - Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning - Unconditioned response (UCR): an unlearned reaction to an unconditional stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning - Conditioned stimulus (CS): a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response - Conditioned response (CR): a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning - Elicited: drawn forth - Trial in classical conditioning: any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli - Classic conditioning can produce phobias and less severe fears and pleasant responses for things like commercials - Classic conditioning can also affect physiological processes like immunosuppression, allergic reactions and drug tolerance - Basic processes in classic conditioning o Acquisition: the initial stage of learning something; depends on stimulus contiguity where stimuli occur together is time and space o Extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency o Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus; extinction does not appear to lead to unlearning, renewal effect o Stimulus generalization: when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus o Stimulus discrimination: when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus; the less similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the likelihood (and ease) of discrimination o Higher-order conditioning: in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus - Operant conditioning: form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences (B.F.Skinner) aka instrumental learning, involuntary responses - Law of effect: if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened - Skinner demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favourable consequences - Reinforcement: when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response - An operant chamber (Skinner box): a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled - Emit: to send forth - Operant responses are generally voluntary so they are emitted rather than elicited - Reinforcement contingencies: the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers - Cumulative recorder: creates a graphic record of responding and reinf
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