Textbook Notes (362,768)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (1,851)
PSY100Y5 (771)
Dax Urbszat (643)
Chapter 7

PSY100 Chapter 7 Summary

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Chapter 7 Encoding: involves forming a memory code; getting information in Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores Next-in-line effect: failure to form a memory code because attention preoccupied with rehearsing Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events; but is irrelevant stimuli screened out early during sensory input or late after the brain has processed the meaning or significance of the input Levels of Processing theory: proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer- lasting memory codes - Structural encoding: shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus - Phonemic encoding: most common, emphasizes what a word sounds like - Semantic Encoding: emphasizes the meaning of the verbal input - Processing time is not a reliable index of depth of processing Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding; additional associations help people remember info Imagery: the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered; provides a second kind of memory code Dual-coding theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall Self-referential encoding: involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant; enhances memory by promoting additional elaboration and better organization Sensory memory: preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second; gives you additional time to recognize the stimuli Short-term memory (STM): a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds - Rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information; can be deterred by time-related decay, interference from competing material, limited in the number of items it can hold (7 plus or minus 2) - Chunk: a group a familiar stimuli stored as a single unit - Working memory: Alan Baddeley; STM with a phonological rehearsal loop (recitation) and visuospatial sketchpad (temporarily hold and manipulate visual images) with an executive control system (controls the deployment of attention) and the episodic buffer (temporary limited capacity store that serves as an interface between working memory and long-term memory Long-term memory (LTM): an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time; may be permanent - Flashbulb memories: unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events; often include major distortions or factual impossibilities Clustering: the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups Conceptual Hierarchy: a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items Schema: an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event - People are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas - But people sometimes exhibit better recall of things that violate their schema-based expectations as it may attract extra attention and deeper processing Semantic Network: consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts - Shorter pathways imply stronger associations - Spreading activation: when people think of a word, their thoughts naturally go to related words Connectionist/parallel distributed processing (PDP) models: assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks - Specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks - Info lies in the strengths of connections Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it’s just out of reach - Occurrences increase with age Source monitoring: the process of making attributions about the origins of memories Source monitoring error: occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source Reality monitoring: refers to the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one’s perceptions of actual events) or internal sources (one’s thoughts and imaginations) Forgetting curve: graphs retention and forgetting over time, most forgetting occurs very rapidly after learning something Retention: refers to the proportion of material retained (remembered) - Recall measure of retention: requires subjects to reproduce information on their o
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