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Dax Urbszat (681)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1-Intro to psychology

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Dax Urbszat

Introduction to Psychology Psychology  Psyche – “soul”  Logos – “to study”  Wilhelm Wundt (1870s) combines the disciplines of philosophy and physiology What is Psychology?  Psychology is the scientific study of behavior.  “anything an animal or human does, feels, or thinks.”  Psychology is a science firmly based in empirical research.  Psychology has broad application. Major Perspectives:  Biological  Psychoanalytic  Behavioral  Humanistic  Cognitive  Evolutionary Major Areas of Research  Social  Physiological  Cognitive/Perception  Personality/Abnormal  Developmental  Psychometrics  Health  Forensics Improving Academic Performance  Read chapters before class  Come to every lecture  Print and read powerpoint slides before lectures  Developing sound study habits  Scheduling (list making) o implementation intentions  Study without distractions  Reward your studying Improving your reading  Survey  Question  Read  Recite  Review Getting more out of lectures  Read chapters before class  Try to listen more than write  Put ideas in your own words  Ask questions  Try not to be passive learner Improve Test taking  Set a schedule  Answer all the questions you know first and skip the ones you are not sure of till later  Keep it simple  Review (leave a few minutes in your schedule for this) Multiple Choice Exams  Try to anticipate the answer  Always read the entire question  Eliminate implausible options  Broad sweeping generalizations tend to be incorrect  Carefully qualified statements tend to be correct Essay Exams  Make time allocations based on marks and your knowledge  ORGANIZE – do a brief outline  Number points or use headings  Use catch words and technical terminology The Evolution of Psychology  Suma = Reena Virk’s mother, Manjit = father  Reena = 14 years old, lived in Victoria, British Columbia  Reena wanted to be friends with Kelly Ellard and was called to their group on November th 14 , 1997  Group seven girls aged 14-16 and one male aged 16  She was beaten and burned with cigarettes  Tried to run away but dragged to waterway  Her body found 1 week later by police nd  Warren Glowatski and Kelly Ellard convicted of 2 degree murder  Ellard sentenced on July 7 , 2005 to life imprisonment th  September 2008, British Columbia Court of Appeal granted her appeal to 4 trial  Glowatski, now 26, convicted in 1999, but now trying to get back to school and set life  Reena’s father wrote moving book about his daughter’s life  Film of bullying: “It’s a Girl’s World” broadcasted in Canada  Bullying could quickly escalate to physical harm  Bullying girls in Canada is on the rise  Researchers in psychology attempt to document and understand such acts in hope of reducing their occurrence  Bullying is traditional and electronic  Some researchers: Marlene Moretti, Tracy Vaillancourt, Debra Pepler and Wendy Craig  One reason why students and researchers drawn to psychology is that it has much to offer in analysis and possible prevention of social problems (by application of scientific method)  Many students associate psychology with study of psychology disorders or abnormal psychology  Sometimes validity of material is less clear From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed  Focus, methods and explanatory models have changed Philosophy, Physiology and Psychology  Term psychology comes from two Greek words: -psyche = soul -logos = study of subject  these two Greek words were put together to define topic of study in 16 century  18 century: psychology term used (the study of the mind)  Psychology is as old as the human race  Psychology emerged as scientific discipline  Ancient Greek philosophers (Socrates, Plato and Aristotle) debated issues relevant to psychology (like: separation of mind and body and whether knowledge is inborn (nativism) or gained through experience)  Aristotle’s theory of memory suggests that memories are result of three principles of association: Similarity, Contrast & Contiguity  Impact of philosophy on development of ideas about mind, behaviour and human nature continued as classical philosophy developed through period of Renaissance, Post- Renaissance  Descartes argued for dualism of mind and body: that mind and body are fundamentally different -mind (soul) being immaterial and Province of God -properties of the body: memory, perception, dreaming and emotions  William Harvey’s: in 1682 said that blood circulation was function of operation of the heart  Physiologist and physicians such as: Roberts Whyte, Franz Gall, Paul Broca and Johannes Muller showed important insights could be gained into workings of the body and brain through application of systematic, empirical methods  Hermann von Helmhotlz: began one of first experimental examinations of human reaction time argued for separation of sensation and perception as topic of study  Many date emergence of psychology as distinct discipline to work of Wilhelm Wundt A New Science is Born: The Contributions of Wundt and Hall  Psychology’s intellectual parents were disciplines of philosophy and physiology  Wilhelm Wundt: German Professor who mounted campaign to make psychology an independent discipline rather than step child of philosophy and physiology  1879: Wundt established first formal laboratory for research in psychology at University of Leipzig -1879 was psychology’s “date of birth”  1881: Wundt established first journal devoted to publishing research on psychology  Wundt declared that psychology should be a new science modeled after fields (physics and chemistry)  Psychology became scientific study of conscious experience -kept focused on mind and mental processes th  G. Stanley Hall: towards end of 19 century, he established America’s first research laboratory in psychology at Johns Hopkins University (1883) -4 years later launched America’s first psychology journal-1892: establishment of American Psychological Association (APA) and elected as first president The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism vs. Functionalism  Structuralism emerged through leadership of Edward Titchener (Englishman immigrated to USA in 1892 and taught at Cornell University) -brought own version of Wundt’s psychology to America  Structuralism based on notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into basic elements and investigate how these elements are related  Physicist studying how matter is made up of basic particles, structuralists wanted to identify and examine fundamental components of conscious experience (like: sensation, feelings and images)  To examine contents of consciousness, depended on method of introspection (the careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience) -introspection required training -if you depend on an individual’s reflection to document a phenomenon, no independent objective evaluation of that claim  Functionalism: based on belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure -work of William James -James thinking illustrates how psychology is deeply embedded in network of cultural and intellectual influences  Natural selection: heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus to be “selected” over time  Darwin’s theory suggests: that typical characteristics of species must serve some purpose  James noted that consciousness is important characteristic of our specifies -psychology should investigate the functions rather than the structures of consciousness -argued that structualists approach missed real nature of conscious experience -consciousness consists of flow of thoughts -wanted to understand the flow, which he called stream of consciousness  Who won? Most historians give in to the functionalism Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behaviorism Makes its Debut  Founded by John B. Watson, behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour -to him the power of scientific method rested on the idea of verifiability -mental processes were not proper subject for scientific study (no one could see or touch other’s thoughts) -to study what people do is better than studying feelings, thoughts, etc. -give up the consciousness as subject matter and instead be the science of behaviour  Behavior: refers to any overt response of activity by an organisms  Watson: Issue of nature vs. nurture -whether behavior is determined by genetic inheritance (nature) or by environment and experience (nurture) -Watson believed that behavior governed by environment  Behaviorists came to view psychology’s mission as attempt to relate overt (responses) to observable events in environment (stimuli)  Stimuli: any detectable input from the environment -can range from light and sound waves to complex inputs (like advertisements on TV or sarcastic remarks by a friend)  Behavioural approach = stimulus response (S- R) psychology  Ivan Pavlov: showed dogs could be trained to salivate in response to auditory stimulus, such as tone  Many psychologists thought that animals would make better research -key reason: experimental research often able to control over their subjects  Before was study of mind but now study of simple responses made by laboratory animals  Watson’s ideas didn’t go unchallenged -emerging school of thought “Gestalt psychology”  psychology should continue to study conscious experience rather than overt behaviour  Watson became the first “pop” psychologist Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture  He was an Austrian physician who dreamed of achieving a discovery and becoming famous  Freud treated people troubled by psychological problems (ex. Irrational fears, obsessions, anxieties) with innovative procedure: psychoanalysis -he explored unconscious -according to him, unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour -his psychoanalytical theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior -people are not masters of their own minds -by 1920 psychoanalytical theory known well around world -most psychologists viewed psychoanalytical theory as unscientific speculation that would fade away  turned out to be wrong -by 1940’s, by Hornstein, “Psychoanalysis was becoming so popular that it threatened to eclipse psychology entirely” -due to this, had to apply scientific methods of topics Freud studied: personality, motivation, and abnormal behaviour and therapy Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviorism Flourishes  Developed system based on his own philosophy of radical behaviorism (represented a departure
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