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PSY100Y5 (771)
Dax Urbszat (643)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Learning.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Chapter 6 Learning Classical conditioning -Classical conditioning – a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus -Pavlov’s “psychic reflex” came to be called the conditioned reflex. -In tribute to the discovery of classical condition by Ivan Pavlov, it is sometimes called Pavlovian conditioning Terminology and procedures -The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning -The unconditioned response (UCR) – and unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning -The conditioned stimulus (CS) – is a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response -The conditioned response (CR) – is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning -Conditioned response have traditionally been characterized as reflexes and are said to be elicited (Drawn forth) because most of them are relatively automatic or involuntary -A trail in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli Classical conditioning in everyday life Conditioned fear and anxiety -classical conditioning often plays a key role in shaping emotional responses Evaluative conditioning of attitudes -researchers have shown great interest in a subtype of classical conditioning called evaluative conditioning -Evaluative conditioning – refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli (pairing NR to a UCS; therefore, making the NR into a CS, which connects to either a positive or negative emotion that elicits UCR) Conditioning and physiological responses -Immunosuppression – a decrease in the production of antibodies -When a neutral stimulus is paired with a drug that chemically causes Immunosuppression, it can become a CS that elicits Immunosuppression on its own. Thus, even the immune response can be influenced by classical conditioning - Conditioning and drug effect -classical conditioning also have effect on drugs, for the environment cues eventually begin to elicit compensatory CRs that partially cancel out some of the anticipated effect of abused drugs, which neutralizes the effect of the drug, producing a gradual decline in the user’s tolerance -Exposure to quitting drug related cues, may trigger CRs that increase drug carving. Basic processes in classical conditioning -Acquisition: forming new responses -Acquisition- refers to the initial stage of learning something -evidence suggests that stimuli that are novel, unusual, or especially intense have more potential to become CSs then routine stimuli Extinction: weakening conditioned response -Extinction – the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency -the extinction of classical conditioning occurs when conditioned stimulus is presented alone, without the unconditioned stimulus Spontaneous recovery: resurrecting response -Spontaneous recovery – the appearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus -the rejuvenate response of the spontaneous recovery will be weak compared to the response at its peak strength, and will quickly re-extinguished -Renewal effect – if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguish response will reappear if the animal is return to the original environment where acquisition took place -Extinction only suppresses a conditioned response rather than erasing a learned association Stimulus Generalization and the mysterious case of little Albert -stimulus generalization occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus response in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus (dog barking when the owner comes home, and barks when other people come to the person’s home) -Generalization depend on the similarity between new stimulus and the original CS -(little Albert) Paring a rat with irritating music, making the rat a CS which triggers a UCR from the music (US). At the end of the study, Watson didn’t have time to distinguish the response and there being criticize Stimulus discrimination -Stimulus discrimination – occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus (barking when owner comes home, but does not bark when friends come over) -The less similar the new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the likelihood of discrimination Higher-Order conditioning -When paired a conditioned stimulus to a natural stimulus, which causes it to become conditioned stimulus, then the original condition stimulus will act as the UCS, which it originally being conditioned Higher-order conditioning – a conditioned stimulus function as if it were an unconditioned stimulus Operant conditioning -An organism “operates” on the environment instead of simply reacting to stimuli - Operant conditioning –a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by the consequence -voluntary movement is controlled by consequence Thorndike’s law of effect -another name for operant conditioning is instrumental learning -Law of effect –if a response in the presence of a stimulus lead to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened Skinner’s demonstration: it’s all a matter of consequences -Reinforcement- occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response -according to Skinner, reinforcement occurs when a response is followed by rewarding consequences and the organism’s tendency to make the response increases Terminology and procedures -An operant chamber, or skinner box, is a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled -Operant responses tend to be voluntary, they are said to be emitted rather than elicited (To emit means to send forth) -Reinforcement contingencies – the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforces -Cumulative recorder – recorder that creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time Basic processes in operant conditioning Acquisition and shaping -Operant responses are usually established through a gradual process called shaping -Shaping –consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximation of a desired purpose (at first the mouse may not press the leaver; therefore, in order for it to know, experimenter has to shape the rat by drooping food whenever the rat is close to the leaver to bring the rat closer to the desired purpose) Extinction -Extinction in operant conditioning refers to the gradual weakening and disappearing of a respon
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