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PSY100Y5 (771)
Dax Urbszat (643)
Chapter 1

Psychology Chapter 1.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Psychology chapter 1:  Psychology o Psyche = “soul” o Logos = study of a subject  Structuralism – led by Edward Titchener o Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigating how these elements are related o Most of their work concerned sensation – vision, hearing and touch o More interested in being in the laboratory, experimenting o Introspection method  systemic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience  Functionalism – inspired by ideas of William James o Based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure o William James argued that the structuralist’s approach missed the real nature of conscious experience, he argued that consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thoughts o Functionalists were more concerned with how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the real world around them o Other functionalist’s began mental testing, pattern of development in children, the effectiveness of educational practices and behavioral differences between the sexes  Behaviorism - lead by John B. Watson o Is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior o Watson  wanted psychologists to abandon the study of consciousness altogether  asserted that psychologists could study anything humans do or say but they could not scientifically the thoughts, wishes and feelings that accompany these observable traits o Definition of Behavior  refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism o Behaviorists eventually came to view psychologies mission as an attempt to relate overt behaviors “responses” to observable events in the environment “stimuli” o Stimulus  any detectable input from the environment o Because the behaviorists investigated stimulus – response relationships, the behavioral approach is often referred to as stimulus – response psychology o In the behaviorists approach, consciousness was deleted from their scope of concern and they no longer needed to study human subjects, it was thought that animals would make better research subjects  Sigmund Frued o Australian physician whose approach to psychology grew out of his efforts to treat patients with mental disorders such as anxiety, irrational fears and obsessions with a procedure he called psychoanalysis o Unconsciousness  contains thoughts, memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior o he based this idea on a variety of observations o eventually concluded that psychological disturbances are caused by person conflicts existing at an unconscious level o psychoanalytic theory:  attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants (causes)of behavior  unconscious motives and experiences in early childhood govern personality and mental disorders  B.F. Skinner o Philosophy of radical behaviorism o Didn’t deny the existence of internal mental events but he redefined them as private events and didn’t think they needed recognition when explaining behavior o Argued that psychology could understand and predict behavior adequately without resorting to physiological explanations o Fundamental principle of behavior according to Skinner  organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that result in neutral or negative outcomes o In his experiments, Skinner showed that he could exert remarkable control over the behavior of animals by manipulating the outcomes of their responses o Arrived at the conclusion that free will is an illusion : people are controlled by their environment not by themselves  The Humanists Revolt o Psychoanalytic theory was attacked for its belief that behavior is dominated by primitive, sexual urges o Behaviorism was criticized for its preoccupation with the study of simple animal behavior o Both theories were criticized because they suggest that people are not masters of their own destinies o It was argued that both idea failed to recognize the unique qualities of HUMAN behavior o In the 1950ls both ideas blended into an alliance that became known as HUMANISM  Humanism o Is a theoretical orientation that emphasized the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth o Basic premise: humans are free, rational beings with the potential for persona l growth and they are fundamentally different from animals o Take an optimistic view of human nature o Claim that because human are fundamentally different from animals, research on animals has little relevance to the understanding of human behavior o Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were the architects of the humanistic movement o Carl Rogers  Argued that human behavior is governed primarily by each individuals sense of self – which animals presumably lack  He and Maslow maintained that to fully understand people’s behavior, psychology must take into account the fundamental human drive toward personal growth  Applied psychology o
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