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Psychology (1,899)
PSY100Y5 (809)
Dax Urbszat (681)
Chapter 8

Psychology chapter 8 detailed notes.docx

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Dax Urbszat

Language and Thought Cognition - mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge Language - symbols conveying meaning, plus rules for combining symbols that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages language is symbolic, spoken sounds and written words to represent objects, actions, events, ideas language is semantic, meaningful. Symbols used in language are arbitrary, no built-in relationship exists between the look or sound of words language is generative, limited # of symbols can be combined in infinite ways phonemes - smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished perceptually morphemes - smallest units of meaning in a language semantics - area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations syntax - system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences months 1-5, reflexive communication, random vocalization 6-18, babbling - verbalizes in response to speech of others 10-13 - first words 12-18 - vocabulary spurt, fast mapping facilitates rapid acquisition of new words deaf babies exhibited manual babbling - babbling with hands similar to verbal babbling babble > first words > slow vocabulary growth receptive vocabulary is larger than productive vocabulary, they understand more than they can speak Fast mapping - process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure vocabulary spurt - period during which children rapidly acquire many new words overextension - when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or ations than it is meant to underextensions - occur when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects telegraphic speech - consists mainly of content words, articles, prepositions while other less critical words are omitted, eg "give doll" rather than "please give me the doll" Overregularizations - when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply eg "the girl goed home" metalinguistic awareness - ability to reflect on the use of language Bilingualism - acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabulary and grammatical rules There is little support for the assumption that bilingualism has a negative effect on language development bilingual subjects tend to scoe higher than monolingual subjects on cognitive flexibility, analytical reasoning etc bilingualism associated with higher levels of controlled processing on tasks that require attention control bilingualism may not confer an advantage in all aspects of cognitive and linguistic processing but there are some documented advantages and few demonstrated disadvantages acculturation - degree to which a person is socially and psychologically integrated into a new culture Can Animals develop language? researchers trained chimps to use American Sign Language ability to use language - in a basic primited way - is not entirely unique to humans Theories of Language Acquisition Behaviourist Theories outlined by B.F. Skinner in his book Verbal Behaviour Children learn language the same way they learn everything else vocalizations that are not reinforced gradually decline in frequency Nativist Theories Noam Chomsky - infinite number of sentences in a language, children do not learn language by imitation humans have an inborn, native propensity to develop language language acquisition device an innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language Interactionist theories argue that the LAD concept is terribly vague biology and experience BOTH make important contributions to the development of language Does a cultural group's language determine thought? or do thought determine language linguistic relativity, the hyothesis that one's language determines the nature of one's thought Theory of linguistic relativity asserts that language determines thought, the evidence only supports a weak version Problem solving refers to active efforts to discover what must be doen to chieve a goal that is not readily attainable 1. Problems of inducing structure, discover relationships among numbers words symbols 2. Problems of arrangement, arrange parts of a problem so it satisfies a condition Insight - sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error 3. Problems of transofmration, sequence of transformations to reach a goal Common obstacles to problem solving include focus on irrelevant information, functional fixedness,
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