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Chapter 9

Psychology Chapter 9 detailed notes on Intelligence.docx

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Dax Urbszat

Psychological test - standardized measure of a sample of a person's ehaviour these are used to measure the individual differences that exist among people in abilities, aptitudes, interests and aspects of personality Intelligence tests measure general mental ability, intended to assess intellectual potential Aptitude tests are designed as well to measure potential mroe than knowledge Aptitude tests assess specific types of mental abilities Achievement tests gauge a person's mastery and knowledge of various subjects personality tests measure various aspects of personality, including motices, interests, values and attitudes standardization refers to the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test Test norms provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test In psychological testing, everything is relative percentile score - indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained standardization group - sample of people that the norms are based on Reliability - measurement consistency of a test (or of other kinds of measurement techniques) correlation coefficient - numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables reliability can be tested using several ways, - test-retest reliability is estimated by comparing subjects' score on 2 administrations of a test Underlying assumption: assertiveness is a fairly stable aspect of personality that one change in a matter of weeks validity - ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure Test-retest reliability: if a participant shows similar test scores when tested multiple times, then that test is reliable positive correlation: 2 variables co-vary in the same direction most reliability coefficients fall between 0.70 and 0.95 Content validity - degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it is supposed to cover. EG, an exam that does not cover material that was covered in class criterion-related validity- estimated by orrelating subjects' scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test hypothetical constructs qualities such as creativity, intelligence, extraversion which has no obvious criterion measures that exist construct validity - extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct Criterion-related validity: if a subject scores similarly between a test and another measure, then that test is supported/valid Evolution of intelligence testing began with Sir Francis Galton, who noticed that success and eminence appeared consistently in some families over generations Alfred Binet devised a test to identify mentally subnormal chilldren Binet published the first useful test they loaded it with items requiring abstract reasoning skills rather than sensory skills, which Galton had measured Mental age - indicated that he or she displayed the mental ability typical of a child of that chronological (actual) age Lewis Terman revised Binet's test, incorporated a new scoring scheme based in the "Intelligence Quotient" Intelligence quotient: child's mental age divided by chornological age, multiplied by 100 IQ = Mental age/Chronological age * 100 Wechsler improved the measurement of intelligence in adults Wechsler made his scales less dependent on verbal ability, he included nonverbal reasoning Factor analysis - correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables - Invented by Charles Spearman Spearman concluded that cognitive abilities share an important factor, labeled "g" for general mental ability L.L. Thurstone - concluded that intelligence involve multiple abilities normal distribution - symmetric, bell-shaed curve that represents the pattern inw hich many characteristics are dispersed in the population fluid intelligence - reasoning ability, memory capacity, speed of information processing Crystallized intelligence involves ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving deviation IQ cores locate subjects precisely within the normal distibution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measurement Modern IQ scores indicate exactly where you f
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