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Dax Urbszat (681)
Chapter 7

Psychology Chapter 7 complete notes on Memory.docx

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Dax Urbszat

Human Memory 1. How does information get into memory? 2. How is information maintained in memeory? 3. How is information pulled back out of memory? three key processes involved, encoding (getting info in), storage (maintaining it) and retrieval, extraction it Encoding - forming a memory code e.g memory code for a word may depends on how it looks, sounds or what it means Storage involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time Retrieval involves recovering information from memory stores What is the role of attention? Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events Selective attention is critical to everyday functioning Attention is like a filter that screens out most stimuli Between early selection model and late selection model, evidence points to both sides, we may be able to move the filter back and forth Stimulus > Sensory detection > (Early selection) Recognition of meaning (late selection) > response selection > Response Multitasking is shown to fail when doing complicated tasks that require constant attention, EG texting while driving Levels-of-processing theory - deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes Shallow processing - Structural encoding emphasizes physical structure of stimulus Intermediate processing - phonemic encoding: emphasizes what a word sounds like Deep processing - semantic encoding: emphasizes the meaning of verbal input Elaboration - linking stimulus to other information at the time of encoding Imagery can be used to enrich encoding image potential is connected to pairing ability, the easier it is to think up an image of a word, the easier it is to pair it correctly Dual-coding theory: memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, either one lead to recall self-referent encoding - deciding how or whether information is personally relevant Storage wax tablet model - memory is compared to a block of wax that differed in size and hardness for various individuals information-processing theories subdivide memory into three separate memory stores incoming info passes through two tempoary storage buffers - sensory store and short-term store before transfer to long-term store sensory memory - preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second short-term memory: limited-capacity store that maintain unrehearsed information for up to 20 seconds rehearsal - process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information short term memory lost in less than 20 seconds The Magical Number Seven, Plus r Minus Two: George Miller's experiment that showed that people could only remember seven items of unfamiliar material chunk - group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit NF-BCT-VS-BCIB-M is much harder to remember than NFB-CTV-CBC-IBM Individuals who are experts in specific areas have shown to process information differently compared to non-experts working memory - limited capacity storage system that temporarily maintains and stores information by providing an interface between perception, memory and action Working memory capacity - one's ability to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention Long-Term memory - unlimited capacity store that hold information over lengthy periods of time flashbulb memories - unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events EG 911 clustering - tendency to remember similar or related items in groups conceptual hierarchy - multilevel classification system based on common properties among items schema - organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object abstracted from previous experience with the object or event people are more likely to remember things that are consistant with their schemas than those that are not semantic network - nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts connectionist models of memory taek their inspiration from how neural networks appear to handle information connectionist/ parallel distributed processing - cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in connected neural networks PDP models assert that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon - tempoary inability to remember something yo
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