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Dax Urbszat (681)
Chapter 7

Psychology Chapter 7.docx

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Dax Urbszat

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Psychology 100 – Chapter 7 Review Types of memory  Semantic: memory of general information  Episodic: memory for personal events Three key processes involved in memory  Encoding o involves forming a memory code o ``Usually requires attention o Analogous to entering data using a computer board o Ex: when you encode a word you usually emphasize how it looks, sounds, means  Storage o Involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time o Analogous to saving data in a file on your computer  Retrieval o Involves entering information from memory stores o Analogous to calling up and file and then displaying it on your computer monitor Next in line effect  In a laboratory: scientists have realized that if participants in a small group take turns speaking to the group, subsequent memory tests reveal that the subjects tend to not recall much of what was said just before they took their turn  why?  because participants are too preoccupied with what they are planning on saying to pay attention to what is being said The Role of Attention  Attention o involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events o Attention involves late selection based on meaning of input – what you hear vs. what you have blocked out Levels of Processing  Participants were asked to look at a picture of a banana at the back of a truck o Verbal elaboration in which participants would attempt to conduct sentences describing the object was associated with activity in the  prefrontal cortex o Visual elaboration in which participants focused on the images of the object showed brain activity in  extrastriate region next to the primary visual cortex  Differences in how people attend information are the main factors influencing how much they remember  Craik and Lockhart o Propose that incoming formation can be processed at different levels o In dealing with verbal information , people engage in three progressively deeper levels of processing  Structural encoding • Relatively shallow process which emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus • Ex: words are flashed on a screen, structural encoding registers such things as how they were printed (cap letters, lower case, word length  Phonemic encoding • Emphasizes what a word sounds like, involves naming or saying the words  Semantic encoding • Emphasizes the meaning of the verbal input • Involves thinking about the objects and actions the word represents  Level of Processing Theory o Proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memory codes o Craik and Tulving, compared the durability of structural, phonemic and sematic encoding  Directed the subjects attention to particular aspects of briefly presented stimulus words by asking them questions about various characteristics of the words  Key hypothesis: retention of the stimulus words would increase as subjects moved from structural to phonemic to semantic encoding  Given 60 words and then tested their memory for the words  Subjects recall was low after structural encoding, better after phonemic encoding and highest after semantic encoding Elaboration  Semantic coding can be advanced through a process called elaboration  Definition: is linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding  Ex: you read that phobias are caused by classical conditioning and you apply this idea to your fear of spiders. In doing so you engage in elaboration  Consists of thinking of examples that illustrate an idea  Study: students read 32 paragraphs and the greater the amount of examples the better the memory Visual imagery  Imagery: the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered – can also be used to enrich encoding  Easier imaging a concrete object (clown) rather than an abstract object (truth)  Study by Pavio, Smythe and Yullie o Asked subjects to learn a list of 16 pairs of words o They manipulated whether the words were concrete ( high imagery words) or abstract (low imagery words) o High – high (juggler - dress)/ High – low (Dog-temptation)/ Low-high (Free- Snow)/ Low-low (quality-simple) o Best recall = high-high pairings/ worst recall = low-low pairings  Paivio o Imagery facilitates memory because it provides a second kind of memory code, two is better than one o Dual Coding Theory  Holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall Self-Referent Encoding  Involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant  Appears to enhance recall by promoting additional elaboration and better organization of systems Sensory memory  Preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second  Allows sensation, visual patterns, sound or touch to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over Short Term Memory  Is a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds  Rehearsal – the process of repetitive verbalizing or thinking about information  Maintenance rehearsal - simply maintaining information in consciousness  Elaborative processing – increasing the probability of retaining information in the future Durability of Storage  STM storage lasts about 20 seconds without rehearsal  Loss of memory due purely to time related decay of memory traces and interferences Capacity of Storage  STM is limited to the number of items it can hold  You can increase the capacity of STM by combining stimuli into larger, possibly higher- order units called Chunks  Chunks – is a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory  Phonological Loop o Is at work when you use recitation to temporarily remember a phone number o Evolved to facilitate the acquisition of language  Visuospacial sketchpad o Permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images o Is at work when you try to mentally rearrange furniture in your room  Central executive system o Control the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention and dividing attention as needed o Is at work when you watch a TV show and try to hold a conversation as well  Episodic buffer o Temporary , limited capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate information and that serves as an interface between working memory and long term memory LTM – Long Term Memory  Is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time  Information is generally permanent  Flashback memories o Which are usually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events o Ex: 9/11 – people knew exactly what they were doing, where they were, how they felt o Tend to be strong, vivid and detailed but become the opposite with time and fade Clustering and conceptual hierarchies  Clustering: the tendency to memorize similar or related items in groups  thus factual information is routinely organized into simple categories Conceptual Hierarchies o People spontaneously organize information into categories for storage in memory o Study: participants given list of 60 words and asked to memorize them, each word fit into one of the four categories of words (vegetables/professions/names/animals). Showed subjects recalling the list engaged in clustering  Conceptual Hierarchy: is a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items o Factual information is routinely represented in cat
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