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Chapter 13

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Dax Urbszat

Psychology Chapter 13 Review: Stress, Coping & Health  Biopsychosocial model: physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors.  Contagious diseases (ex. Small pox) have been taken over by chronic diseases  Health psychology: is concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention and treatment of illness.  Stress: any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten ones wellbeing and thereby tax ones coping abilities  concept of stress was identified an named by Hans Selye  Acute stressor vs. chronic stressor: o Acute stressor: are threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint  ex: dealing with the challenge of a major exam/ house being flooded o Chronic stressor: are threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit  Persistent financial strains/ caring for a sick family member for long time  four major types of stress o frustration  occurs in any situation where the pursuit of some goal is thwarted  ex: dating a guy for a long time, thinking you will eventually marry, then he breaks up with you, you end up crying all night  failure and losses are two most common types of frustration o conflict  occurs in any situation where two or more compatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression  ex: girl gets proposed to, doesn’t know whether she wants to marry the guy, scared if she rejects the relationship is over, but doesn’t want to lose the guy either  study done by Laura King and Robert Emmons  Used an elaborate questionnaire to asses the overall amount of internal conflict experienced by subjects  Found that higher levels of conflict were associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, and physical symptoms  conflict comes in three different types • Approach- approach conflict: a choice must be made between 2 attractive goals  ex: free afternoon, watch the basketball game or go out  tends to be the least stressful • Avoidance – avoidance conflict: a choice must be made between 2 unattractive goals  ex: continue to take unemployment checks or get a job at a car wash?  most unpleasant and highly stressful • Approach-avoidance conflict: a choice must be made about whether the pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects  ex: getting a promotion with higher pay, but having to move to a new city where you don’t want to live  often produce vacillation (go back and forth, tormented by an indecision) • Neal Miller Experiment  observed the same vacillation in his research with rats. Created approach-avoidance conflicts in hungry rats by alternatively feeding and shocking them at one end of a runway apparatus. The rats tended to hover near the runway and alternatively retreating from the goal box at the end of the runway o Change:  Life changes are any noticeable alterations in ones living circumstances that require readjustment  Ex: being divorced for 4 years, becoming adjusted to living life alone and according to your own routine, then marrying someone who also has 2 kids of his/her own and having to adjust to life with their routines as well  Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe theorized that stress makes people more vulnerable to illness. They interviewed TB patients and outcome was that even positive things caused an onset of illness, simply because they produce change. Developed the social readjustment rating scale to measure life change as a form of stress. The scale assignment numerical value to 43 major life events which are supposed to represent the magnitude of readjustment required by each change. o Pressure:  Involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way  Ex: father tells daughter she is his favorite because she is nearly perfect, daughter tries to preserve that image but it’s not true and she feels the relationship deteriorating.  Types of Responses o Emotional response: annoyance, anger, anxiety, fear o Physiological response: heart rate increase, strong pulse, hormonal fluctuations o Behavioral response: lashing out at others, blaming yourself, releasing emotions  Emotional responses o Barbara Frederickson’s Broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions  Positive emotions broaden peoples mindsets, broadening their creativity and flexibility in problem solving  Positive emotions can undo the lingering effects of negative emotions and thus short-circuit the potentially damaging physiological responses to stress  Positive emotions can promote rewarding social interactions that help build valuable social support  Other studies conclude that positive emotions can create higher stability in health • Study was done where subjects were given rhino virus or the flu and
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