Textbook Notes (368,241)
Canada (161,733)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY100Y5 (809)
Dax Urbszat (681)
Chapter 16

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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 16: Social Behaviour o Efficiently proves and store the wealth of info that they take in about others in their interactions • Minorities are often targets of discrimination, stereotypes and prejudice o Place people on categories, these categories impact person • Social psychology: branch of psychology concerned with the ways perception individuals thoughts, feelings and behaviours are influenced by others Stereotypes 1. Person perception: how we formulate how others are like, what extent • Stereotypes: special types of schemas, widely held beliefs that people have one’s expectations impact judgements certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group 2. Attribute processes: • Stereotyping is a cognitive process, often automatic and saves time/effort to 3. Interpersonal attraction get a handle of people individually 4. Attitudes o Simplification 5. Conformity and obedience o Low accuracy from overgeneralization 6. Behaviour in groups • Zanna’s first study 7. Social neuroscience o Immediate style: sitting closer, more eye contact(white applicant) o Non-immediate style: sitter further away, speech errors (black Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others applicant) • Impressions can dramatically be affected by just one piece of info • Zanna’s second study • Central traits are important in impression formation o Experimented how it would feel to have someone behave towards • Person perception: the process of forming impressions of others you in a non-immediate style • Impressions are inaccurate at times because of bias and fallacies o Study was designed to show the operation of self-fulfilling prophecy o Ingenuity in piecing together clues about other’s characteristics • If you hold strong belief about the characteristics of another group, you may Effects of Physical Appearance behave in such a way so as to bring these characteristics about • Judgements of other’s personality are greatly affected by appearance Subjectivity in Person Perception • stereotypes and other schemas create biases in person perception that o Good looking people command more of our attention • Attractive people are seen as more sociable, friendly, poised, warm and well frequently lead to confirmation of people’s expectations about others • ILLUSORY CORRELATION – occurs when people estimate that they have adjusted. Expected to have better lives encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than o Attractive people in the media have positive image they have actually seen o Our perceptions are swayed by the desired to bond with attractive • SPOTLIGHT EFFECT – people’s tendency to assume that the social people spotlight shines more brightly on them than it actually does • Studies show little correlation between attractiveness and personality traits • ILLUSION OF ASYMMETRIC INSIGHT – the finding that people tend to • Observers are quick fairly accurate about other’s inferences through non- think that their knowledge of their peers is greater than their peers’ verbal expressions knowledge of them • Baby-faced features are viewed as more honest and trustworthy An Evolutionary Perspective on Bias in Personal Perception o No correlation • biases seen in social perception were adaptive in humans’ ancestral environment Cognitive Schemas • Schemas: cognitive structures that guide information processing by • baby-faced features: baby was seen as helpless, needed nurturing organizing • humans are programmed by evolution to immediately classify people as • Social schema: organized clusters of ideas about categories of social members of: events and people o INGROUP – a group that belongs to and identifies with (more • observers are often unaware of historical and situational considerations, so favourable) they tend to make internal attributions for another’s behaviour o OUTGROUP – a group that one does not belong to or identify with • actors are more likely than observers to locate the cause of their behaviour (negative stereotypes) in the situation Attribution Processes: Explaining Behaviour • actors favour external attributions for their behaviour, whereas observers are more likely to explain the same behaviour with internal attributions • not only do attributes play a key role in these explanatory efforts, but they Defense Attribution also have significant effects on social relations • ATTRIBUTIONS – are inferences that people draw about the causes of • DEFENSIVE ATTRIBUTION – is a tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way events, others’ behaviour, and their own behaviour • People make attributes mainly because they have a strong need to • Blaming victims for their setbacks causes them to be seen in a negative light, and undesirable traits are unfairly attributed to them understand their experiences Self-Serving Bias Internal versus External Attributions • people tend to locate the cause of behaviour either within a person, • self-serving bias in attribution comes into play when people attempt to explain success and failure attributing it to personal factors, or outside a person, attributing it to • SELF-SERVING BIAS – is the tendency to attribute one’s successes to environmental factors personal factors and one’s failure to situational factors • INTERNAL ATTRIBUTIONS – ascribe the causes of behaviours to personal • Failure: actor blames situational factors, observer blames personal factors dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings • EXTERNAL ATTRIBUTIONS – ascribe the causes of behaviour to • Success: actors makes internal attribution Culture and Attributional Tendencies situational demands and environmental constraints Attributions of Success and Failure • individualism versus collectivism influence attributional tendencies as well as • people often focus on the stability of the causes underlying behaviour other aspects of social behaviour • internal factors that are stable (lack of ability) or unstable (inadequate effort) • INDIVIDUALISM – involves putting personal goals ahead of the group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group • external factors that are stable (too much outstanding competition) or memberships unstable (bad luck) Bias in Attribution • COLLECTIVISM – involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the group one belongs to (i.e. family, tribe, • attributions are only inferences social class, etc.) • attributions ultimately represent guesswork about the cause of events, and • Collectivist cultures emphasize the importance of obedience, reliability, and these guesses tend to be slanted proper behaviour (Asian, African, Latin American cultures) Actor-Observer Bias • Individualistic cultures emphasize the development of independence, self- • FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR – which refers to observers’ bias esteem, and self-reliance (North America, Western European cultures) in favour of internal attributions in explaining others’ behaviour • People from collectivist societies appear to be less prone to the fundamental • Observers have a curious tendency to overestimate the likelihood that an attribution error actor’s behaviour reflects personal qualities rather than situational factors because: • In western culture, people are viewed as autonomous individuals who are o Situational pressures may not be readily apparent to an observer responsible for their own actions o Attributing others’ behaviour to their dispositions is a relatively Close Relationships: Liking and Loving simple, effortless process that borders on automatic • INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION – refers to positive feelings towards o Explaining people’s behaviour in terms of situational factors is a another more complex process that requires more thought and effort Key Factors in Attraction o secure attachment • factors that promote the development of liking, friendship, and love o anxious-ambivalent attachment – anxious when separated from caretaker Physical Attractiveness o avoidant attachment – never bonded well with caretaker • key determinant of romantic attraction for both sexes was the physical - romantic love is an attachment process, and people’s intimate relationships in attractiveness of the other person adulthood follow the same form as their attachments in infancy; people relive their • being physically attractive appears to be important for females than males early bonding with their parents in their adult romantic relationships o secure adults – (56%) relatively easy to get close to others, described their love • MATCHING HYPOTHESIS – proposes that males and females of relations as trusting, rarely worried about being abandoned, and reported the fewest approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners divorces Similarity Effects o anxious-ambivalent attachment – (20%) reported a preoccupation with love accompanied by expectations of rejection and described their love relations as • married and dating couples tend to be more similar in age, race, religion, volatile and marked by jealousy social class, personality, education, intelligence, physical attractiveness and attitudes o avoidance attachment – (24%) found it difficult to get close to others and described their love relations as lacking intimacy and trust • similarity causes attraction; however, attraction can foster similarity - attachment style is also related to the motivations that underlie people’s sexual • ATTITUDE ALIGNMENT – partners gradually modify their attitudes in ways interactions (sex to reduce feelings of insecurity/enhance closeness or casual sex to that make them more congruent impress peer group) Reciprocity Effects - secure attachments tend to have high self-esteem • flattery will get you somewhere, with some people, some of the time - avoidant or anxious-ambivalent attachments tend to be overrepresented in groups • RECIPROCITY – involves liking those who show that they like you that suffer from depression, eating disorders, and other types of psychopathology Culture and Close Relationships • SELF-ENHANCEMENT EFFECT – you help friends and family feel good • cultures vary considerably in terms of how they understand and about themselves conceptualize love and relationships • SELF-VERIFICATION – they seek feedback that matches and supports their self-concept • variability is attributable to differences in societal and psychological differences in individualism and collectivism Romantic Ideals • the more closely individuals’ perception of their partners match their ideals, • similarities have been seen when research has focused on what people look the more satisfied they tend to be with their relationship for in prospective mates Perspectives on the Mystery of Love • people all over the world value mutual attraction, kindness, intelligence, Passionate and Companionate Love emotional stability, dependability and good health in a mate - romantic relationships are characterized by two kinds of love: • gender differences in mating priorities were nearly universal, with males o PASSIONATE LOVE – complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual placing more emphasis on physical attractiveness and females putting a feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion (erodes in time) higher priority on social status and financial resources o COMPANIONATE LOVE – warm, trusting, tolerate affection for another whose life is • cultures vary, however, in their emphasis on love – especially passionate deeply intertwined with one’s own (increase with time, although at different rates) love – as a prerequisite for marriage - love has three facets rather than just two. Split companionate love into two: • marriage-for-love represents an ultimate expression of individualism o INTIMACY – refers to warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship • marriages arranged be families and other go-betweens remain common in o COMMITMENT – an intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and cultures high in collectivism, including India, Japan, and China costs that may arise • romantic love is less important for marriage Love as Attachment An Evolutionary Perspective on Attraction - three attachments that infants fall into: • they assert that physical appearance is an influential determinant of Attitudes and Behaviour attraction cause certain aspects
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