Textbook Notes (363,566)
Canada (158,433)
Psychology (1,867)
PSY100Y5 (787)
Dax Urbszat (659)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13.docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Chapter 13: Stress, Coping and Health • Biopsychological Model: physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors • Psychosocial factors like stress and lifestyle impacts chronic diseases that develop gradually • Health psychology: how psychosocial factors related to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention and treatment of illness Nature of Stress • Stress: any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten ones well-being and that thereby tax one’s coping abilities Stress as an Everyday Event • Average of 12 full days per year in cars to get to work for Canadians • Type of stressor, one’s controllability, biological factors(age, sex) and previous experience with stress are some factors • Routine/minor hassles may have significant effect in mental/physical health o Due to cumulative nature of stress Appraisal: Stress Lies in the Eye of the Beholder • Stress intensity is based on what event one notices and how one chooses to appraise/interpret them • To some certain events are more stressful than others • Primary Appraisal: initial evaluation of whether an event is either 1. Irrelevant to you 2. Relevant but not threatening 3. Stressful • Secondary Appraisal: evaluation of your coping resources and options for dealing with the stress • People are not objective in their appraisals of potentially stressful events • They are subjective in their stress appraisals • Anxious and neurotic people are prone to more stress Major types of Stress • Acute Stressors: threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint • Chronic Stressors: threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit • It is impossible to classify stressful events into non-intersecting categories • Four major types of stress: frustration, conflict, change, and pressure Frustration • Frustration: occurs in situations in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted • Most are brief and insignificant • Failures and losses(more intense b/c deprived of something they are accustomed to having) are more highly stressful Conflict • Conflict: two or more incompatible motivations or behavioural impulses compete for expression • Freud’s theory of internal conflicts generate psychological distress • Kurt’s 3 types of conflict: 1. Approach-approach - Choice is made between 2 attractive goals - Least stressful - Decision making process is distressful b/c the not chosen one represents a loss of some sort 2. Avoidance-avoidance - Choice between two unattractive goals - Most unpleasant - Highly stressful 3. Approach-avoidance - A choice whether to pursue a single goal that has both an attractive and unattractive aspects - More common - Quite stressful - Vacillation is common, you go back and forth, beset by indecision o Occurs in other animals, like rats Change • Life changes: noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment • Stress ay make one more vulnerable to illness • Positive events cause stress because they produce change • Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): measure life changes as a form of stress o Respondents are asked how often they experience the following 43 events during a certain time period o The numbers associated with each event is the amount of change-related stress the person has recently experienced o High score on SRRS tend to be more vulnerable to many kinds of psychological illness/problems o Criticism: does not measure change exclusively and SRRS is dominated by clearly negative events Pressure • Canadians that are time-stressed numbers increased as people are working harder and longer • Pressure: involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way • Pressure to perform/conform to others’ expectations • Strong relationship between pressure and variety of psychological symptoms and problems (stronger than SRRS) Responding to Stress Emotional Response Emotions Commonly Elicited - There is no one-to-one connection between certain type of stressful event and particular emotions - After the threat is gone, people start to count the losses and break down - Specific cognitive reactions to stress links with specific emotions o Self-blame leads to guilt, helpless and sadness - Common emotions: annoyance/anger/rage, apprehension/anxiety/rage, dejection/sadness/grief - Frequency of pleasant emotions correlated positively with a measure of subject’s resilience - Frequency of unpleasant emotions correlated negatively with resilience - Positive emotions do not vanish when one is stressed out - Broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions 1. Positive emotions alter people’s mindsets o Broaden scope of attention o Increase creativity and flexibility in problem solving 2. Positive emotions undo the lingering effects of negative emotions o Short-circuit the physiological responses to stress damaging psychological responses to stress 3. Positive emotions can promotes rewarding social interactions that help o build valuable social support o enhance coping strategies o provide other enduring resources - association with positive emotion and lower levels of stress hormone and lower mortality - positive emotion associated with increased immune system Effects of Emotional Arousal - strong emotional arousal interfere with attention and memory retrieval and impairs judgement and decision making - inverted-U hypothesis states that emotional arousal does not necessarily hurt coping methods o task performance improve with increased emotional arousal o performance peak is characterized as the optimal level of arousal for a task o as a task becomes more complex the optimal level of arousal for peak performance tends to decrease o shows emotional arousal can be beneficial or disruptive on cooping depending on the nature of the stressful demands Physiological Responses Fight or Flight Response (Canon) - physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking(fight) or fleeing(flight) o sympathetic NS, Autonomic NS - less adaptive in females because it may endanger offspring o they allocate more effort to the care of offspring and seeking help/support General Adaptive Syndrome (Selye) - general adaptation syndrome: model of the body’s stress response, consisting of 3 stages: Alarm, resistance and exhaustion - stress reactions are non specific o reactions do not carry according o the specific type of stress encountered o stress: non-specific response to a variety of noxious agents 1. Alarm: one first recognizes the existence of threat o Psychological arousal occurs, body musters resource to fight or flight 2. Resistance: exposure to prolonged stress (chronic), physiological changes stabilize as coping efforts to go underway o Physiological arousal continues to be higher than normal although organism may become accustomed to threat 3. Exhaustion: body’s resources get depleted over a substantial amount of time o Hormonal exhaustion o Chronic over activation of stress response have damaging physiological effect on variety of orfan systems  Lead to “disease of adaptation” Brain-Body Pathway - 2 pathways of signals to the endocrine system that produce hormones 1. Hypothalamus o Activates autonomic nervous system (sympathetic) o Stimulates adrenal glands to release catecholamines into blood o Stimulate physiological reactions for mobilized action (fight or flight) o Heart rate/respiration rate/blood to brain Increases, digestion decrease and pupils dilate 2. Pituitary: Direct communication between brain and endocrine system o Hypothalamus sends signal to pituitary(master gland) o Pituitary secret ACTH, stimulating outer part of adrenal glands o It releases corticosteroids which stimulates the release of chemicals that help increase energy and inhibit tissue inflammation - Female stress response is milder from puberty to menopause o From high level of estrogen o Gender disparity make one more prevalent to certain disease - Stress interfere with neurogenesis Behavioural Responses • Most behavioural response to stress involve coping • Coping: active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress o Healthful or maladaptive • Coping is a key aspect of personality because it is stable, dispositional attribute • Endless coping inventory for stressful situations (CISS) 1. Task oriented coping 2. Emotion-oriented coping 3. Avoidance-oriented coping Giving up and Blaming Oneself - Learned helplessness: passive behaviour produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events (aka behavioural disengagement) - Occurs when one believe that events are out of control - Associated with increased distress - Catastrophic thinking: highly self critical in response to stress o Aggravates and perpetuate emotional reactions to stress - Negative self talk contribute to depressive disorders Striking Out at Others - Aggression: any behaviour that is intended to hurt someone wither physically or verbally - Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: aggression is always caused by frustration o But there is not a 1-to-1 correspondence between frustration and aggression - When people are angry, displaced aggression is a common response (Frued diversion of anger to a substitute target) - Catharsis: behaving aggressively could get pent-up emotion out of one’s system and thus be adaptive o Release of emotional tension - Experiments show behaving in an aggressive manner tends to feel more anger and aggression Indulging Oneself - Stress sometimes results in reduced impulse control/self-indulgence - Excessive consumption (food, alcohol, drugs) when stressed o Compensate by pursuing substitute forms of satisfaction - Gamblers use more maladaptive coping styles compared to non-gamblers in dealing with their stress - Severe gamblers use less task-oriented coping strategies o Males are 2x more likely to be gamblers - Internet addictions: spending inordinate amounts of tume on the internet and inability to control online use o Interfere with daily life Defence Coping - Frued’s concept of defence mechanism o Psychoanalytic - Defence mechanism: largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions like anxiety and guilt - Shield individuals from emotional discomfort elicited by stress o Word of unpleasant emotion or decrease intensity - It is self-deception, distort reality - Oftentimes they are unhealthy o Avoidance does not provide solution - But studies show that positive illusions are healthy o Normal people show unrealistic optimism about their self-image, the control of certain events and about the future o Depressed people are more realistic Mechanism Description Protection oneself form unpleasant reality Denial of Reality by refusing to perceive it or face it Fantasy Gratifying frustrated desires by imagining achievements Intellectualization Cutting off emotion from hurtful situations, or separating incompatible attitudes so (Isolation) they appear unrelated Undoing Atoning for or trying to magically dispel unacceptable desires or acts Covering up felt weaknesses by emphasizing some desirable Overcompensation characteristics or making up for frustration on one area by gratification on another Constructive Coping - Construct
More Less

Related notes for PSY100Y5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.