Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology
FROM SPECULATION TO SCIENCE: HOW PSYCHOLOGY DEVELOPED
How did psychology develop?
• Developed from philosophical speculations of the mind and physiology into modern work
What is philosophy, psych and physiology?
• Psychology: study of the mind
• Physiology: study of body functions
• Philosophy: study of knowledge
What are the contributions of Wundt & Hall
• Wundt made psychology its own science, study of the consciousness
• Hall started APA (American Psychology Association) expanded and made it more popular
What is the difference between structuralism and functionalism
• Structuralism is based on the basics of psychology (feeling, images)
• Functionalism is based on studying the function, that there s a constant flow of the conscious
What is Watsons’ behaviourism and how does it change psych?
• Behaviourism is the study of human behaviour rather than the conscious mind
• It changed psych because animals were used and there was stimulus and response theory
What is the unconscious and psychoanalytical theory?
• The unconscious is feelings thoughts that we aren’t aware of
• Psychoanalytic theory tries to explain who we are
Why does skinner question free will?
• He believes that humans tend to repeat positive outcomes and stray from negatives ones
• Humans are controlled by environment
• Free will is an illusion
What are humanist and how do they revolt
• Believe that human are unique and have different quantities from animals
How does psych become a profession?
• Applied psych everyday problems
• Clinical psych diagnosis / treatment of mental disorders
Why is cognition renewed?
• Believe that human behaviour cannot be studied without understanding how people think/
consciousness Why was there an increase in interest in cultural diversity?
• Western world realized that there were different cultures and customs/rules/morals that would
affect those people behaviours
What is evolutionary psychology?
• Basically natural selection favors behaviours that are better for reproductive success
What is positive psychology?
• Using theories to better understand fulfilling positive aspects of life
What are the research areas in psych?
What are the professional specialities in psychology?
PUTTING IT IN PERSPECTIVE
What are the seven key themes
1. Highlights crucial aspects of psych
2. Broad generalizations of behaviour
Theme’s related to psych as a field of study
1. Psychology is empirical
2. Psych is theoretically diverse
3. Psych evolves in a sociohistorical context
Themes related to psychs generalization
4. Behaviour is determined by multiple causes
5. Behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage
6. Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour
7. Peoples experience of the world is highly subjective Chapter 2: The Research Enterprise in Psychology
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO BEHAVIOUR
What are the goals of the scientific enterprise?
1. Measurement and description
2. Observation and prediction
3. Application and control
What are the steps in a scientific investigation?
1. Make a testable hypothesis
2. Find a method and formulate a plan
3. Collect data
4. Analyze the data and draw conclusions
5. Report findings
What are advantages of scientific approach?
Is the clarity and precision as well as intolerance of errors
LOOKING FOR CAUSES: EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
What is experimental research?
• Having one variable being manipulated in a controlled environment and seeing the effects on the
What are IV and DV?
• IV used to find out if it has an effect on another variable
• DV expected to change from the manipulation of IV
What are experimental and control groups
• Experimental groups have special treatment when it comes to the independent variable
• Control group are standard
What are extraneous variables?
• Other variables besides the independent variable that affects the dependent variable
What are variations in deisgning experiments?
1. One group of people can be used in both experimental and control group
2. There can be different manipulations of independent variable
3. Use more than one dependent variable
What are descriptive and correlation research
• Is the association between variables/ studies behaviour
What is naturalistic observation?
• Observation of an experiment without the research influencing the participants What are case studies
• Indepth form of research on a specific topic
What are surveys?
• Questionnaires interviews to find out data
LOOKING FOR CONCLUSIONS: STATISTICS AND RESEARCH
What are statistics and research
• Use of math to organize and interpret data, helps draw conclusions
What are descriptive statistics?
• Used to organize and summarize data
What is central tendency?
• Average of outcomes, this uses mean median and mode
What is variability?
• Is how one set of data varies from another
• Measures of variability: range, standard deviation
What is correlation
• 2 variables are connected
What is the different between positive and negative correlation?
• Positive is when 2 variables relate in the same direction
• Negative is when 2 variables related in opposite directions
What is the strength of the correlation?
• Is the size of the coefficient not the (+) or ()
How does correlation relate to prediction?
• When correlation increases in strength, you can predict a variable better
How does correlation and causation relate
• Correlation tells if 2 varaibles are related but cant tell us if one causes the other or vice versa
What are inferential s