Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness
THE NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS
BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND SLEEP
What are biological rhythms?
Biological rhythms are periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning.
What are the roles of circadian rhythms?
The circadian rhythm is a 24 hour biological cycle that most people have, and its role allows us to sleep
when our temperature drop and awaken when they rise. Thats why there are people who are day/night
What happens when you ignore the circadian rhythm?
When you ignore your biological clock, you start to accumulate sleep debt, which is for every hour you
miss its accumulates. Also people become irritable, sluggish and more.
What is melatonin?
Melatonin is a hormone drug that can be used to help reset the biological clock. Also help alleviate jet lag.
THE SLEEP AND WAKING CYCLE
Explain stages 14
Stage 1: light sleep, where hypnic jerks happen (17 minutes)
Stage 2: Sleep spindles occur, and temperature, heart rate declines (1025 minutes)
Stage 3&4: Slowwave sleep which happens for about 30 minutes
Then the cycle reverses itself
What is REM sleep?
REM sleep is a relatively deep sleep that occurs at stage 1 , and is marked by rapid eye movement, and
brainwaves that appear that the person is awake.
How often do people repeat the cycle?
About 4 times, The longer you’re asleep the longer the REM stage and shorter the NREM stage.
How does age affect sleep?
Newborns spend 50% of their sleep in REM stage and it levels off at 20% during adulthood. Elderly sleep
How does culture effect sleep?
Cultures affect sleep because some may be more lax and allow for naps, or harmony by co sleeping
(sleeping with an infant)
What are the neural bases of sleep?
ARAS (ascending reticular activating system determines arousal.
What is sleep restriction? Sleep restriction is when people do not get enough sleep for several reasons, juggling work, family,
housework etc, or only sleep for 5 hours. When people are sleep deprived they believe they’re fine but in
reality it is the opposite.
What is selective Deprivation?
Selective deprivation is when people are deprived of REM sleep, thus they wake up often everytime they
go into REM stage. However people need both REM and SWS.
How do sleep loss and health correlate?
IF you don’t get enough sleep, people tend to feel hungry, immune system is impaired and higher risk for
What is insomnia?
Insomnia is problem in getting enough sleep.
1. Have touble going to sleep
2. Have trouble staying asleep
3. Wake up early
Causes: anxiety, stress, depression, health problems.
Treatment: using over the counte