Chapter 7: Memory
What is encoding?
Encoding is getting information into memory
What is the role of attention?
Attention is focusing awareness on a narrower range of stimuli.
Pretty much focussing on one thing and disregarding the other shit
What are the levels of processing and the theory?
There are 3 levels:
1. Structural Encoding: the physical structure of the stimulus
2. Phonemic Encoding: what the work sounds like
3. Semantic Encoding: the meaning of the word.
The levelofprocessing theory is the deeper levels or processing allows for longer lasting memory codes.
What enriches encoding?
• Visual imagery
• Self referent
What is elaboration?
• Is basically linking the stimulus to other information
• Part of semantic encoding
• (ex. Learning classical conditioning and applying own fears)
What is visual imagery?
• Having visual images or using them to represent a word so it can be better remembered.
• Some words are easier to draw imagery than others (concrete, abstract)
• Dual coding theory: memory is enhanced by having semantic and visual codes.
What is self – Referent encoding ?
Self Referent is deciding if information is personally relevant to you.
What is storage processing?
What is sensory memory?
Preserving memory in its original sensory form
What is shortterm memory? Short term memory is maintaining unrehearsed memory for 20 seconds
What is the durability of storage?
About 15 seconds
What is capacity of storage?
The capacity of STM is 7 chunks of information
What is working memory?
Working memory is a limited storage system that temporarily stores and maintains info by providing an
WMC: ability to hold an manipulate info in conscious mind
What is long term memory?
LTM is an unlimited capacity storage that can hold information over long periods of time
Flashbulb memories: unusually vivid recollections of momentous events.
What are clustering and conceptual hierarchies?
Clustering: remembering shit in group
Conceptual: categories (multilevel classification system based on common properties among items)
What are Schemas?
They are organized clusters of knowledge on an object of event based on previous experience with it.
What are semantic networks?
Concepts that are joined to other concepts... pretty much Minus the fancy words
What are the connectionist networks and parallel distributed processing models ?
Assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational
I have no idea what the fuck that means
PDP: large networks of nodes that are similar to neurons
What is retrieval?
Getting info out of memory
What is the tipofthetongue phenomenon?
... basic shit.
What is source monitoring and reality monitoring ?
Reality monitoring: process of deciding whether memories are based on perceptions of actual events or
their thoughts and imagination
Source monitoring: process of making attributions about the origins of memories.
Destination memory: recalling to whom one has told what
What is forgetting?
When memory lapses What are the measures of forgetting?
Retention: all the shit that was remembered
Recall: measure of retention that requires the person to remember without cues
Recognition: the opposite of recall
Why do we forget?
1. Ineffective encoding
2. Decay: that forgetting occurs because memory fades with time
3. Interference: people forget info because of competition of other material
4. Retrieval failure
a. Encoding specificity principle: value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it
corresponds to a memory code
b. Transfer appropriate processing: initial processing of info is similar to type of processing
5. Motivated forgetting
BTW EVERYTHING ELSE SEEMS LIKE BASIC SHIT. I DIDNT WRITE IT BECAUSE ... YOLO
Physiology of Memory
Explain the neural circuitry of memory?
• Thomson showed that memories create unique reusable pathways in the brain.
• Long term potentiation is a long – lasting increase in neural excitable alone a specific pathway
• Neurogenisis – formation of new neurons may contribute to sculpting of neural circuits that
Whats the difference between retrograde and anterograde amnesia?
Retrograde: loss of memories prior to onset of amnesia
Anterograde: loss of memories after onset of amnesia. No long term memory
Consolidation: gradual conversion of into durable memory codes stored in long term memory
Systems and Types of Memory
What is the difference between implicit and explicit memory?
Implicit: retention is exhibited on a task that does not require intentional remembering
Explicit: intentional recollection of previous experiences.
What is the difference between declarative and procedural memory?
Declarative: factual info
Procedural: actions and skills
What is the difference between semantic and episodic memory?
Semantic: general knowledge, stored, undated
Episodic: dated recollection of personal experience.
What is the difference between prospective and retrospective memory?
Prospective: remembering to perform actions in the future
Retrospective: remembering events from the past Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Language: Turning Thoughts into Words
What is language?
Language consists of symbols that convey meaning
What are the 4 key properties?
What is the structure for language?
Phonemes, morpheme, words, phrases, sentences
What are phonemes?
Phonemes: smallest speech units
What are morphemes and semantics
Morphemes: smallest units of meaning in language
Semantics: area of language concerned with understand the meaning of words
What is syntax?
Syntax: system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences
What is the different between overextension and underextention?
Over: a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects
Under: a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects
What is telegraphic speech?
Consists of content words
Ex. GIVE DOLL
What is over regularization?
Grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases
Ex. The girl goed home
Does learning 2 languages slow down language development?
Some studies have found that bilingual children have smaller vocab
But with both vocabularies put together it is similar of superior to a child with a single language.
Does bilingualism affect cognitive processes and skills?