Chapter 13: Stress, Coping, and Health
THE NATURE OF STRESS
Stress: any circumstance that can threaten one’s wellbeing and strain someone’s coping ability
How does stress affect us every day?
• After major natural disasters psychological and physical issues increase dramatically
• Even minor stress can affect the body and mind long term, it adds up
How to appraise stress?
• Appraising stress is very subjective, what might be stressful for one person is normal for the other
• Primary Appraisal: this is evaluation if the event is 1) irrelevant to you, 2) relevant but non
threatening, 3) stressful
• Secondary Appraisal: figuring out ways to deal with the stress
MAJOR TYPES OF STRESS
Acute Stressors: threatening events that have a short duration
Chronic Stressors: threatening events that have a long duration and have no time limit
What is Frustration?
• Frustration is when the pursuit to a goal is thwarted
• Generally frustrations are short and insignificant
• Failures and losses are two main types
What is Conflict?
• Conflict is when 2 incompatible motivations or impulses compete for expression
• 3 types of conflict
1. ApproachApproach: 2 attractive goals, less stressful
2. AvoidanceAvoidance: 2 unattractive goals, extremely stressful
3. ApproachAvoidance: both goals have positives and negatives: causes vacillation (going
back and forth)
What is change?
• Life changes can cause a certain amount of stress (divorce, pregnancy etc)
What is pressure?
• Pressure is expectations that make people behaviour in a certain way
• 2 types are perform and conform
RESPONDING TO STRESS
1. Emotional response
2. Physiological response
3. Behavioural response What is emotional response?
• Basically when you react emotionally when you’re under stress
• Responses to stress include
o Rage, Anger
o Anxiety, Fear
o Sadness, grief
• Although negative responses occur, positive ones still remain and even help get the person
through the stress.
• Broadenandbuild theory of positive emotion
1. alter peoples mindsets
2. can undo negative emotions
3. can promote reward social interaction to help build social support
What are the effects of emotional arousal?
• Inverted uhypothesis: task performance should increase as emotional arousal increased until it
hits a point call optimal level of arousal.
What are the physiological responses?
• Fight or flight response
o A reaction to a threat where the autonomic nervous system mobilizes someone to attack
• General adaptation syndrome
o 3 stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
• BrainBody pathways
o First, the hypothalamus activates the ANS(sympathetic division