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Chapter 6

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Jayne Baker

Chapter 6 Learning any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience Phobias irrational fears of specific objects or situations that are often the result of classical conditioningSuperstitions can arise when you wrongly connect eventsie chicken and home runConditioninginvolves learning connections between events that occur in an organisms enviroment Classical conditioning a type of learning in which a stimulus acquire the capacity to evoke a response originally evoked by another stimulusalso Pavolnian conditioningturned psychology from introspection more scientific Pavlov and psychic reflexes now known as conditional reflexes what the dogs didresponded to clicking sound and salivated UCSevokes response without previous conditioning UR reaction without previous conditioning CSneutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit draw forth a responseCRlearned reaction to CS that occurs because of previous conditioning Trial consists of any presentation of a stimuilus or pair of stimuli how many trials are require to establish a particular conditioned bond Classical conditioning in Everyday life Fears phobias evaluative conditioningrefers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli eg pleasant music with brands of root beer ad campaignsmost likely to put attractive person or enjoyable surroundspuppies children even in association conditioning and Physiological responses Operant conditioninga form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences B F Skinnerderived from his belief that in this type of responding an organism operates on the environment instead of simply reacting to stimuli Learning happensbecause responses come to be influenced by the outcomes that follow them Voluntary responses distinction but not always absolute Thorndikes law of effect Operant conditioning is also known as instrumental learning This was introduced by Edward L Thorndikeinstrumental in obtaining some desired outcomeCat studycat could escape to obtain food by performing a specific response such as pulling a wire or depressing a lever cat was rewarded with a small amount of food Gradual decline in solution time to escape showed that the cats were learning Law of effect a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened Successful responses are gradually stamped in by their favoruable effects Became corner stone of Skinners theory Skinners Demonstration its all a matter of consequencesUsed operant conditioning to help with the war efforts in ww2group of pigeons to be able to use their beaks to keep pecking in order to guide missiles to their target Fundamental principle of operant conditioning was anticipated by the law of effect Skinner demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favorable consequences embodied by reinforcement Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that response Terminology and proceduresOperant chamber skinner boxa small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of response are systematically controlled Emit to send forthOperant responses are voluntary thus elicited Reinforcement contingencies the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers The experimenter manipulates whether positive consequences occur when the animal makes the designed responseeg foodthis is a reinforcer that hunger of the mice virtually ensures The key dependent variable is the subjects response rate over time The cumulative recorder created a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time The recorder works by mean s ofa roll of paper that moves at a steady rate underneath a movable pen When there is no response the pen stays still and draws a straight horizontal line showing time passage Pen moves upward when there is a response The pen movements produce a graphic summary of the animals responding over time Results are usually portrayed in graphs x time y responses Key consideration is slope of the line that represents the record of respondinga rapid response rate produces a steep slope whereas a slow response rate produces a shallow slope Line never goes down Basic processes in Operant ConditioningPrinciple is simple but many processes involved can make it complexthe same processes are involved In both operant and classical conditioning Acquisitionrefers to the initial stage of learning some new pattern of responding Operant responses are usually established through a gradual process called shapingShaping consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
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