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Chapter 8

Chapter 8.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Jayne Baker

Chapter 8Language and thoughtCognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge thinkingcognitive psychologists investigate the complexities o f language inference problem solivng secision making and reasoningLanguage turning Thoughts into wordsWhat is a languageLanguage consists of symbols that convey meaning plus rules for combining those symbols that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages 1lnaugage is symbolic objects shymbols written words to represent objects events and ideasanother timeplace eg broke a lamp at work yesterday2langugage is semanticmeaningfullack of relationship between the look or sound of words and objects they stand forege pen in 3 english French and Spanish shared meaning for these language speakers 3 language is generative limited number of symbols can be combined in a infinite variety of ways to generate an endless array of novel messageseg everyday you create and comprehend sentences you have never heard before the structure of language hierarchical basic sounds are combined into units with meaningwhich are then combined into words then phrases phonemsesthe smallest speech units in a language that canbe distinguished perceptually estimate that human can only recognize 100 usually 2080 only one has 100English 40 phonemes26 lettersa letter in the alphabet can represent more than one phonemeEg a in father had call each pronounciation corresponds to a different phoneme some phonemes are combos of letters eg thbMorphemes and semanticsMorphemesthe smallest units of meaning in a languageEnglish has 50000Eg friend one morpheme unfriendly3 prefic suffix and rootSemanticsthe area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations Variety of objectsand actions that words refer to detonation dictionary definition pr connotationemotional opvertones and secondary implications SyntaxSystem of rules that specific how words can be arranged into sentencessimple rule is that a sentence must have both a subject and a verbUnderlies all languages even if not aware eg article thecomes before the word it modifies the swimmer vs swimmer the Milestones in language development Moving towards producing wordsJanet Werker Human infants are well prepared to learn languagewill selectively attend to speech sounds than not utereus is possible originseparation of languages if more than one PRIMIR processing rich info from multidimensional interactive representations First 6 months of life crying cooing and laughter Babbling produces a wide variety of sounds that correspond to phonemes becomes more complex and increasingly resembles the language spoken by parents and others in the child enviromentit lasts till 18 months even after first words Optimal period for acquisition of languageLauraAnn Petitto babbling is one of themost monumental milestones in language acquisition 2 views 1 motor achievement that reflects brains maturation in controlling the motor operations needed to eventually produce speechby product 2 key linguistic achievement allows infant to acquire the basics of language Using words 1013 months
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