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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Sensation and Perception.doc
Chapter 4 - Sensation and Perception.doc

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School
University of Toronto Mississauga
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100Y5
Professor
Alireza N Haghighi
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter4SensationandPerceptionordinarilypeoplecanrelyonthreetypesofcuestodeterminewhichwayisupvisualgravityandbodydirectionSENSATIONisthestimulationofsenseorgansPERCEPTIONistheselectionorganizationandinterpretationofsensoryinputSensationinvolvestheabsorptionofenergysuchaslightorsoundwavesbysensoryorganssuchastheearsandeyesPerceptioninvolvesorganizingandtranslatingsensoryinputintosomethingmeaningfulsuchasyourbestfriendsfaceorotherenvironmentalstimuliPsychophysicsBasicConceptsandIssuesPSYCHOPHYSICSthestudyofhowphysicalstimuliaretranslatedintopsychologicalexperienceThresholdsLookingforLimitssensationbeginswithastimulusanydetectableinputfromtheenvironmentTHRESHOLDadividingpointbetweenenergylevelsthatdoanddonothavedetectableeffectsABSOLUTETHRESHOLDforaspecifictypeofsensoryinputistheminimumamountofstimulationthatanorganismcandetectAbsolutethresholdsdefinetheboundariesofanorganismssensorycapabilitiesAsstimulusintensityincreasessubjectsprobabilityofrespondingtostimuligraduallyincreasesTheabsolutethresholdasthestimulusintensitydetected50ofthetimeWeighingtheDifferencesTheJNDJUSTNOTICEABLEDIFFERENCEJNDisthesmallestdifferenceintheamountofstimulationthataspecificsensecandetectAnabsolutethresholdissimplythejustnoticeabledifferencefromnothingnostimulusinputJNDscarybysenseandthesmallestdetectabledifferenceisfairlystableproportionofthesizeoftheoriginalstimulusWEBERSLAWstatesthatthesizeofthejustnoticeabledifferenceisaconstantproportionofthesizeoftheinitialstimulusAsstimuliincreaseinmagnitudetheJNDbecomeslargerFECHNERSLAWstatesthatthemagnitudeofasensoryexperienceisproportionaltothenumberofJNDsthatthestimuluscausingtheexperienceisaboveabsolutethresholdConstantincrementsinstimulusintensityproducesmallerandsmallerincreasesinperceivedmagnitudeofsensationExThreeequalincreasesinstimulusintensitytheamountoflightproduceprogressivelysmallerdifferencesinthemagnitudeofsensationperceivedbrightnessPerceptionscantbemeasuredonabsolutescalesInthedomainofsensoryexperiencevirtuallyeverythingisrelativeSignalDetectionTheorySIGNALDETECTIONTHEORYproposesthatthedetectionofstimuliinvolvesdecisionprocessesaswellassensoryprocesswhicharebothinfluencedbyavarietyoffactorsbesidesstimulusintensityAccordingtosignaldetectiontheoryyourperformancewillalsodependonthelevelofnoiseinthesystemNoisecomesfromalltheirrelevantstimuliintheenvironmentandtheneuralactivitytheyelicitThemorenoiseinthesystemtheharderitwillbeforyoutopickupaweaksignalPerceptionwithoutAwarenessSUBLIMINALPERCEPTIONtheregistrationofsensoryinputwithoutconsciousawarenesslimenisanothertermforthresholdsosubliminalmeansbelowthresholdTheeffectsofsubliminalstimuliturnouttobenearlyassubliminalasthestimulithemselvesSubliminalstimulationgenerallyproducesweakeffectsSensoryAdaptationSENSORYADAPTATIONisagradualdeclineinsensitivitytoprolongedstimulationSensoryadaptationisanautomotivebuiltinprocessthatkeepspeopletunedintothechangesratherthantheconstantsintheirsensoryinputSensoryadaptationprobablyisabehaviouraladaptationthathasbeensculptedbynaturalselectionSensoryadaptationalsoshowsonceagainthatthereisnoonetoonecorrespondencebetweensensoryinputsandsensoryexperienceTheworlddependsonboththephysicalstimulitheyencounterandtheiractiveprocessingofstimulusinputsOurSenseofSightTheVisualSystemhumansarevisualanimalspeoplerelyheavilyontheirsenseofsightandtheyvirtuallyequateitwithwhatistrustworthyseeingisbelievingwhatpeoplesenseandwhattheyperceivemaybequitedifferenceTheStimulusLightLIGHTaformofelectromagneticradiationthattravelsasawavemovingnaturallyenoughatthespeedoflightLightwavesveryinamplitudeheightandinwavelengththedistancebetweenpeaksAMPLITUDEmainlyaffectsmainlytheperceptionofcolourThelightshumansnormallyseearemixturesofseveralwavelengthsLightcanalsovaryinpurityhowvariedthemixis
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