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Canada (158,372)
Psychology (1,867)
PSY100Y5 (787)
Dax Urbszat (659)
Chapter 2

APP Ch.2 Outline.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

1AP Psychology OutlineChapter 2 The Research in PsychologyRedDefinitionBlueImportant PointsGreenImportant PeopleContributions1Scientific Approach to BehavioraThe Scientific Approach assumes that events are governed by lawsbPsychologists assume Behavior is governed by laws Like the Earth is governed by the law of Gravityc3 Goals of Scientific EnterpriseiMeasurementDescriptionDevelop Measurement techniques that describe behavior clearly and preciselyiiUnderstandingPredictionMake and Test predictions called Hypothesis1HypothesisStatements about the relationship between two or more variables2VariablesAny measurable characteristics or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study iiiApplicationControlApply research findings to help practical problems1TheoryThe system of related ideas used to explain a set of observations Must be testableBased upon experiments and evidence Is always subject to revision2Steps in a Scientific InvestigationaStep 1 Formulate a Testable HypothesisbScientific Hypothesis must be formulated precisely and variables under study must be clearly definedcOperational DefinitionDescribes the action or operation used to measure or control a variabledStep 2 Select Research MethodDefine StudyePut Hypothesis in an Empirical TestfEmpiricalKnowledge should be acquired through ObservationgResearch MethodhDefine the Study by collecting ParticipantsSubjectsiParticipantsSubjectsPersons or Animals whose behavior is observed in a studyjStep 3 Collect the DatakData Collection TechniquesProcedures for Making Empirical Observation and MeasurementslExamples include Direct Observation Questionnaire Interview Psychological Test Physiological Recording or Examination of Archival RecordsmStep 4 Analyze the DataConclusionnUse Statistics to analyze data and find if Hypothesis is supportedoConclude upon the FindingspStep 5 Report the FindingsqGive the findings to the public so it can be tested Such as a journalrJournalPeriodical that publishes scholarly material in a narrow field3Advantages of Scientific ApproachaClarity and PrecisionbSmall amount of Error4Experimental ResearchaExperimentResearch Method where a variable is manipulated and changes to the second variable is observediIndependentDependent Variables
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