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Psychology (1,851)
PSY100Y5 (771)
Dax Urbszat (643)
Chapter 11

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

CHAPTER 11Progress Before Birth Prenatal DevelopmentIntroductionoDevelopmentthe sequence of age related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death Incl both biological and behavioral changes oZygotea one celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg oPrenatal Periodperiod from conception to birth aprox 9 months marked by rapid development until tapering off before birthThe Course of Prenatal DevelopmentoGerminal Stagefirst phase of prenatal development encompassing the first 2 weeks after conceptionBegins when zygote is created through fertilizationPlacentastructure that allows oxygen and other nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mothers bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother Takes place during implantation process oEmbryonic Stagesecond stage of prenatal development lasting from 2 weeks until the end of the second month Most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing organism known as an embryoHeart spine brain formoFetal Stagethe 3rd stage of prenatal development lasting from 2 months through birthRapid bodily growth muscles and bones begin to form Known as a fetusAge of Viabilitythe age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth ie 2226 weeksEnvironmental Factors and Prenatal DevelopmentoMaternal Nutritionsevere maternal malnutrition can lead to increases in the birth complications and neurological defects of a newbornoMaternal Drug Usemajor source of concern about fetal and infant well being as many drugs consumed by a pregnant women can be passed on to the placenta Fetal Alcohol Syndromecollection of congenital inborn problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy Incl hyperactivity retarded mental and motor development oMaternal Illnessfetus is defenseless against infections because its immune system matures relatively late in the prenatal period May incl AIDS Flu etc oPrenatal Health Caregood quality medical care that begins early in pregnancy is associated with reduce prematurity and higher survival rates for infants
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