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Chapter 12

Chapter 12- Personality: Theory,Research and Assessment

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Dax Urbszat

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Jan62004 CHANAPSNotes From ReadingCHAPTER 12 PERSONALITY THEORY RESEARCH AND ASSESSMENTIThe Nature of PersonalityADefining Personality Consistency and Distinctiveness1Concept of personality is used to explain aStability in a persons behavior over time consistencybThe behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation distinctiveness2Personalityan individuals unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits BPersonality Traits Dispositions and Dimensions 1Personality Traitdurable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations ie honesty dependable moody etc 2Factor Analysiscorrelations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables CThe Five Factor Model of Personality Traits McCrae and Costa1Extraversionpeople who score high are characterized as outgoing sociable upbeat friendly assertive and gregarious Positive Emotionality2Neuroticismpeople tend to be highly anxious hostile self conscious insecure and vulnerable Negative Emotionality3Openness to Experienceassociated with curiosity flexibility vivid fantasy imaginativeness artistic sensitivity and unconventional attitudes 4Agreeablenesstend to be sympathetic trusting cooperative modest and straightforward 5Conscientiousnesstend to be diligent disciplined well organized punctual and dependable Constraint Higher productivity6Maintain that personality can be described adequately be measuring the basic traits that theyve identified IIPsychodynamic PerspectivesAIntroduction 1Psychodynamic theories incl all the diverse theories descended from the work of Freud which focus on unconscious mental forces BFreuds Psychoanalytic Theory 1Psychoanalytic Theoryattempts to explain personality motivation and psych disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences unconscious motives and conflicts and methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges aOpponentspeople control their own minds people are masters of their destinies conservative sex values of time 2Structure of Personalitydivided personality structure into 4 components and saw persons behavior as the outcome of interactions among those 3 componentsaIdprimitive instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle ie eating iOperates according to the pleasure principledemands immediate gratification of its urges 15
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