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Psychology (1,851)
PSY100Y5 (771)
Dax Urbszat (643)
Chapter 10

PSYChapter 10.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Jan62004 CHANAPSNotes From ReadingCHAPTER 10MOTIVATIONEMOTIONIThe Motivation of Hunger and EatingAIntroduction1Motives are the needs wants interests and desires that propel people in certain directions 2Motivation involves goaldirected behavior 3There are 2 types of motivationbiological motives that originate in biological needs ie hunger and social motives that originate in social experiences ie achievement4People share the same biological needs but their social needs and their strengths may varyBBiological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger 1Brain Regulationexperience of anger is controlled in the brain specifically 2 areas in the hypothalamus aHypothalamustiny structure involved in the regulation of a variety of biological needs related to survival bLateral hypothalamus LHthe ventromedical nucleus of the hypothalamus VMH regulate hunger but not the key elements c3rd area of hypothalamus known as the paraventricular nucleus PVN may play role in hunger regulationdContemporary theories of hunger focus more on neural circuits rather than anatomical centers of the brain 2Glucose and Digestive RegulationaGlucosea simple sugar that is an important source of energy iMayerproposed that hunger is regulated by the rise and fall of blood glucose levels iiGlucostic Theoryproposed that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored by glucostatsneurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid bDigestive systemnerves send signals that inhibit further eating by monitoring stretching of stomach walls or carry messages that depend on how rich in nutrients the contents of the stomach are 3Hormonal Regulationappear to contribute to regulation of hunger aInsulinhormone secreted by the pancreas which much be present for cells to extract glucose from the blood bLeptinproduced by fat cells throughout the body and released into the bloodstream High levels of fat produce high levels of leptin and circulates through the bloodstream providing the hypothalamus with info about the bodys fat stores CEnvironmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger1Hunger is a biological need but eating may in some instances be social and influenced by 3 factorslearned prefshabits food related cues and stress 2Learned Prefs and HabitsPeople from different cultures display very different patterns of food consumption aPrefs for high fat foodsbTaste prefs are partly a function of learned associations formed through classical conditioning 16
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