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Chapter 2

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Dax Urbszat

Oct52003 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER2: THE R ESEARCHE NTERPRISEIN PSYCHOLOGY I. Looking for Laws: The Scientific Approach to Behavior A. Goals of The Scientific Enterprise Scientific Enterprise assumes that events are governed by some lawful order. 1. Measurement and Description Develop measurement techniques that make it possible to describe behavior clearly and precisely 2. Understanding and Prediction explain reasons for an occurrence a. Hypothesis tentative statement about relationship between 2 or more variables b. Variables any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study. 3. Application and Control Practical Problems and how to control them 4. Theory a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations. a. Must be testable B. Steps in a Scientific Investigation Scientific Investigation are systematic follow an orderly pattern 1. Step 1: Formulate a Testable Hypothesis a. Hypothesis expressed as a prediction b. Operational Definition: describes actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable (IV, DV, CV). 2. Step 2: Select the Research Method and Design the Study (i.e. How to put the hypothesis through an Empirical Test). a. SubjectsParticipants persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study. 3. Step 3: Collect the Data a. Data Collection Techniques: procedures for making empirical observations and measurements i.e. direct observation, questionnaires, interviews, etc. 4. Step 4: Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions a. Researchers use statistics to analyze their data and decide whether their hypothesis has been supported. 5. Step 5: Repeat the Findings: Share findings with other scientists and general population a. Done through journals periodicals that publish technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry. b. Allows others to evaluate and critique new findings. Discloses flaws. C. Advantages of the Scientific Approach 1. Clarity and Precision enhance communication about important ideas 2. Intolerance for Error 3. Research Methods Differing approaches to observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies. II. Looking for Causes: Experimental Research A. Independent and Dependant Variables www.notesolution.com
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