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Chapter 12

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Dax Urbszat

Jan62004 CHANAPS Notes From Reading CHAPTER 12 PERSONALITY THEORY RESEARCH AND ASSESSMENT I The Nature of Personality A Defining Personality Consistency and Distinctiveness 1 Concept of personality is used to explaina Stability in a persons behavior over time consistency b The behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation distinctiveness 2 Personalityan individuals unique constellation of consistent behavioral traitsB Personality Traits Dispositions and Dimensions1 Personality Traitdurable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations ie honesty dependable moody etc2 Factor Analysiscorrelations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variablesC The Five Factor Model of Personality Traits McCrae and Costa 1 Extraversionpeople who score high are characterized as outgoing sociable upbeat friendly assertive and gregarious Positive Emotionality 2 Neuroticismpeople tend to be highly anxious hostile self conscious insecure and vulnerable Negative Emotionality 3 Openness to Experienceassociated with curiosity flexibility vivid fantasy imaginativeness artistic sensitivity and unconventional attitudes4 Agreeablenesstend to be sympathetic trusting cooperative modest and straightforward5 Conscientiousnesstend to be diligent disciplined well organized punctual and dependable Constraint Higher productivity 6 Maintain that personality can be described adequately be measuring the basic traits that theyve identifiedII Psychodynamic Perspectives A Introduction1 Psychodynamic theories incl all the diverse theories descended from the work of Freud which focus on unconscious mental forcesB Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory1 Psychoanalytic Theoryattempts to explain personality motivation and psych disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences unconscious motives and conflicts and methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urgesa Opponentspeople control their own minds people are masters of their destinies conservative sex values of time2 Structure of Personalitydivided personality structure into 4 components and saw persons behavior as the outcome of interactions among those 3 components a Idprimitive instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle ie eatingi Operates according to the pleasure principledemands immediate gratification of its urges 15
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