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Chapter 14

PSYChapter 14.doc

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Feb/19/2004, Thursday CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER 14: PSYCHOLOGICAL D ISORDERS I. Abnormal Behavior: Myths, Realities, and Controversies A. The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior 1. Medical Model proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease. 2. Szasz Abnormal Behavior involves a deviation from social norms rather than an illness. i.e. problems of living and not medical problems. 3. Diagnosis distinguishing one illness from another 4. Etiology apparent causation and developmental history of an illness. 5. Prognosis forecast of probable course of an illness. B. Criteria of Abnormal Behavior 1. Deviance people are said to have a disorder if their behavior deviates from what society considers acceptable (norms). 2. Maladaptive Behavior people may be judged to have a disorder of their everyday adaptive behavior is impaired i.e. substance abuse disorders. 3. Personal Distress i.e. Depression/anxiety 4. Evolutionary Dysfunctions a dysfunction occurs when an evolved psychological mechanism does not perform its naturally selected function adequately or effectively. C. Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders 1. Psych Disorders are incurable 2. People with Psych disorders are often violent and dangerous. 3. People with psych. disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people. D. Psycho-Diagnosis: The Classification of Disorders 1. DSM scale used to diagnose disorders. 2. Axis I (Clinical Syndromes) and Axis II (Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation) used to make diagnosis of condition. 3. Axis III (General Medical Conditions), Axis IV (Psychosocial & Environmental Problems) & Axis V (GAF Scale) used to record supplemental info. a. Axis V current level of adaptive functioning. E. Prevalence of Psych Disorders 1. Epidemiology study of distribution of mental/physical disorders in a population. 2. Prevalence the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specific time period. a. Lifetime prevalence the percentage of people who endure a specific disorder at any time in their lives. 3. 1/3 of population suffers from a psych disorder. Most commonly: anxiety, substance use, and mood disorders. II. Anxiety Disorders A. Introduction 1. Anxiety Disorder class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety. 4 types generalized anxiety disorder, phobic, obsessive compulsive, and panic. 2. Disorders may not be mutually exclusive, many who have one develop another later.Feb/19/2004, Thursday CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER 14: PSYCHOLOGICAL D ISORDERS B. Generalized Anxiety Disorder 1. GAD marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat. i.e. free floating anxiety. 2. Worry about minor matters related to family, finances, work, personal illness. 3. Physical symptoms: trembling, muscle tension, diarrhea, dizziness, heart palpations. C. Phobic Disorder 1. Phobic. Disorder marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger. a. Phobias may be common, but people with Phobic Disorders have fears which seriously interfere with everyday behavior. 2. Common Phobias incl. acrophobia (heights), claustrophobia, brontophobia (storms), hydrophobia, and various insect/animal phobias. 3. People usually realize fears are irrational but are unable to remain calm when confronted by a phobic object (or even imaging it). D. Panic Disorder and Agorophobia 1. Panic Disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occurs suddenly and unexpectedly. Accompanied by physical symptoms. a. Victim becomes apprehensive, refusing to leave house. 2. Agorophobia fear of going out to public places complication of Panic disorder.
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