Notes From Reading
C HAPTER11: H UMAN D EVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
I. Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development
1. Development the sequence of age related changes that occur as a person
progresses from conception to death. Incl both biological and behavioral
2. Zygote a one celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg.
3. Prenatal Period period from conception to birth, aprox. 9 months, marked by
rapid development, until tapering off before birth.
B. The Course of Prenatal Development
1. Germinal Stage first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first
2 weeks after conception.
a. Begins when zygote is created through fertilization.
b. Placenta structure that allows oxygen and other nutrients to pass into
the fetus from the mothers bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to
the mother. Takes place during implantation process.
2. Embryonic Stage second stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2
weeks until the end of the second month.
a. Most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing
organism known as an embryo.
b. Heart, spine, brain form
3. Fetal Stage the 3rd stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months
a. Rapid bodily growth, muscles and bones begin to form.
b. Known as a fetus.
c. Age of Viability the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a
premature birth (i.e. 22-26 weeks)
C. Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development
1. Maternal Nutrition severe maternal malnutrition can lead to increases in the
birth complications and neurological defects of a newborn.
2. Maternal Drug Use major source of concern about fetal and infant well
being, as many drugs consumed by a pregnant women can be passed on to the
a. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome collection of congenital (inborn) problems
associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy. Incl.
hyperactivity, retarded mental and motor development.
3. Maternal Illness fetus is defenseless against infections because its immune
system matures relatively late in the prenatal period. May incl. AIDS, Flu, etc.
4. Prenatal Health Care good quality medical care that begins early in
pregnancy is associated with reduce prematurity and higher survival rates for
II. The Wondrous Years of Childhood
A. Exploring the World: Motor Development
1. Motor Development refers to the progression of muscular coordination
required for physical activities.
2. Basic Principles
Notes From Reading
C HAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
a. Cephalocaudal trend the head to foot direction of motor development.
i.e. children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies
before the lower part.
b. Proximodistal trend center-outward direction of motor development.
i.e. children gain control of their torso before their extremities.
c. Early motor development depends on physical growth and maturation.
d. Maturation the development that reflects the gradual unfolding of
ones genetic blueprint. Product of genetically programmed physical
changes that come with age.
3. Understanding Developmental Norms
a. Developmental Norms indicate the median age at which individuals
display various behaviors and abilities. Useful benchmarks.
4. Cultural Variations and Their Significance
a. Highlights the relationship between experience and maturation i.e.
b. Early motor development depends on maturation. Later motor
development acquire more specialized motor skills which may be unique
to their culture.
B. Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament
1. Temperament characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity.
2. Longitudinal Design investigators observe one group of participants