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Chapter 10


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Elizabeth Johnson

Chapter 10: Intelligence and Achievement Notes Theories of Intelligence 1.The factor analytic approach: • factor analysis - a statistical procedure used to determine which of a number of factors/scores are both closely related to each other and relatively independent of other groups of factors/scores • Charles Spearman proposed that intelligence is composed of a general factor (g) and a number of factors (s) • general factor(g) - general mental energy/ability that is involved in all cognitive tasks • specific factor (s) - factors that are unique to particular cognitive tasks • Lewis Thurstone proposed that 7 primary skilss comprise intelligence: •verbal meaning rote memory perceptual speed word fluency • •reasoning spacial visualization •number 2. The information-processing approach: Sternberg’s triarchic theory: • triarchic theory of intelligence - a theory that proposes 3 major components of intelligent behaviour: information- processing skills, experience with a particular situation, and the ability to adapt to the demands of a context these 3 components work together in organizing and guiding intelligent behaviour • • information-processing skills are required to encode, store, and retrieve information • experience considers how much exposure and practice an individual has had with a particular intellectual task • context recognizes that intelligence cannot be separated from the situation in which it is used • successful intelligence - the ability to fit into, mould, and choose environments that best fulfill the demands of one’s society and culture and one’s own needs and desires(includes analytical, creative,and practical abilities) • tactic knowledge - implicit knowledge that is shared by many people that guides behaviour 3.Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences: • theory of multiple intelligences - Gardner’s multi-factorial theory that proposes 8 distinct types of intelligence Type of Intelligence Description Linguistic - sensitivity to word meanings; appreciation of the ways language can be used (ex. teacher, poet) Logical-mathematical - understanding of objects,symbols,the actions that can be performed on them,and the interrelations among these actions (ex. scientist) Spatial - accurate perception of visual world; ability to transform perceptions and mentally recreate visual experience (ex. artist) Musical - sensitivity to musical tones and phrases (ex. musician, composer) Bodily kinesthetic - skilled and graceful use one’s body for expressive or goal-directed purposes (ex. dancer, actor) Intrapersonal - access to one’s own feeling life; ability to draw on one’s emotions to guide and understand behaviour (ex. novelist, psychotherapist) Interpersonal - ability to notice and distiguish among others’ moods,temperaments,motives and intentions (ex. psychotherapist, teacher) Naturalist - ability to understand living things and to use this knowledge productively (ex. biologist, naturalist) Testing Intelligence • intelligence quotient (IQ) - an index of the way a person performs on a standardized intelligence test relative to the way others her age perform • IQ can change over the lifespan because it can be modified by experience • we can only measure performance not capacity • 3 primary purposes in intelligence testing: predicting academic performance, predicting performance on the job, and assessing general adjustment and health • culture-fair test - a test that attempts to minimize cultural biases in content that might influence the test taker’s responses 1.Measuring infant intelligence: • Bayley scales of infant development (BSID) - non-verbal tests that measure specific developmental milestones and that are generally used with children who are thought to be at risk for abnormal development • tests for infant intelligence are poor predictors of later cognitive levels • Fagan test of infant intelligence - a test of how infants process information, including encoding attributes of objects and seeing similarities and differences across objects 2. Stanford-Binet test: • Stanford-Binet test - the modern version of the 1st major intelligence test; emphasizes verbal and performance skills • Binet and Simon built into their test age-related changes in children’s learning • mental age - an index of a child’s actual performance on an intelligence test as compared with her true age • IQ = MA/CA x 100 • it was used to identify children who were unable to learn in traditional classroom settings and who would benefit from special education 3.The Wechsler scales: Wechsler intelligence scales - 3 intelligence tests for infants,children,and adults that yields separate scores for verbal • and performance IQ as well as a combined IQ score • deviation IQ - an IQ score that indicates the extent to which a person’s performance on a test deviates from age- mates’ average performance • the average score is a 100 4. The Kaufman assessment battery for children: • Kaufman assessment battery for children (K-ABC) - an intelligence test designed to measure several types of information-processing skills as well as achievement in some academic subjects • 2 categories - sequential processing(solving problems in a step-by-step fashion) and simultaneous processing(examining and integrating a wide variety of materials in the solution of a problem) 5.Constructing measures of intelligence: • psychometrician - a psychologist who specializes in the construction and use of tests designed to measure various psychological constructs, such as intelligence,motivation,achievement orientation,and personality characteristics a) Development of norms and standards: • test norms - values or sets of values that describe the typical performance of a specific group of people • the person is described as either average,above average,or below average in relation to other group members • age is a particularly critical factor when setting norms for children • standardization - the process by which test constructors ensure that testing procedures,instructions,and scoring are identical on every testing occasion b) Test validity and reliability: • validity - the extend to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure • reliability - the degree to which a test yields consistent results over successive administrations 6. Stability of measured intelligence: a) Productive value of infant testing: • many longitudinal studies of intelligence found now significant relation b/w intelligence test scores recorded in infancy and those attained later in childhood or even adulthood b) Changes in children’s IQ over time: • most research indicates that from the middle years of childhood onwards,intelligence tests are fairly reliable predictors of later performance on such tests high-IQ children are likely to show greater amounts of change than low-IQ children • • experiential factors may also contribute to changes in IQ • Flynn effect - the general trend toward an increase in average IQ test scores across subsequent generations of the 20th century CLASS NOTES what is intelligence? • •psychologists do not completely agree about how to define and measure intelligence •but many tests assume to measure intelligence in infants,children,and adults •some consensus among general public, university students, and psychologists • people generally agree that three behaviours are involved: •problem-solving abilities •verbal abilities •social competence • issues defining theories of intelligence: •is intelligence unitary or multi-faceted? •is it determined by genetic or environmental factors? •does it predict success in school as well as success outside of school? • Concepts of Intelligence: •Spearman: • intelligence is essentially unidimensional, represented by a general factor -- g -- associated with “mental energy” • specific knowledge and abilities -- s -- (eg verbal reasoning) evident in specific tasks • Psychometrics: •measurement of psychological traits/abilities •using standardized tests to identify individual differences •psychometrician - designer of intelligence tests •tests norms are the values or sets of values that describe the typical performance that describe the typical performance of a specific group of people • Test validity and reliability: •validity is the extent to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure •reliability is the degree to which a test yields consistent results over suc
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