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Canada (158,417)
Psychology (1,867)
PSY210H5 (84)
Chapter 11


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University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

Chapter 11: The Family Notes • socialization - the process by which parents and others ensure that a child’s standards of behaviour,attitudes,skills and motives conform closely to those deemed appropriate to her role in society The Family System families do not function in isolation: they are influenced by the larger physical,cultural,social,and historical settings • and events around them 1.The ecological system perspective: • see class notes for Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of development 2. The marital system: a) How does the marital relationship affect children? • research has shown that when partners are mutually supportive, they are more involved with their children, and their relationships with their children demonstrate affection,sensitivity, and competent child-rearing practices • amount of shared parenting engaged in by couples predicts their marital satisfaction,parental competence,and closeness of their children • within families whose marital partners typically confronted conflicts with hostility,belligerence,and contempt, children tended to display more aggressive and acting-out behaviour than other children • the effect of marital conflict on children can take 1 of 2 pathways: • children may be affected by such conflict indirectly when marital difficulties cause parents to change their child- rearing practices or interact differently with their children children may also be affected directly by marital conflict when they are actually witnesses to arguments and fights • • boys are much more susceptible to the negative effects of family disharmony than girls 2. The parent-child system: a) how parents socialize children: • in teaching their children social rules and roles,parents rely on several of the learning principles: • they use reinforcement when they explain acceptable standards of behaviour and then praise or discipline their children according to whether they conform to or violate these rules • parents also teach their children by modelling behaviours they want the children to adopt b) Dimensions of parental behaviour: Emotionality: • crucial in the socialization process • when a parent is warm and loving,the child is likely to want to maintain the parent’s approval and toe be distressed at any prospect of losing the parent’s love • if a parent is cold and rejecting, the threat of withdrawal of love is unlikely to be an effective mechanism of socialization Control: 2 types: • •behavioural control involves setting reasonable rules and parental use of suggestions,reasoning,and possible alternative courses of action as well as monitoring of children’s activities psychological control involves the use of emotion-directed tactics such as guilt/shame induction, withdrawal • of love and affection,or ignoring/discounting a child’s feelings • this type of control often leads to lower self-esteem,higher anxiety,and depression age plays an important role: • •as children grow older,they resist being controlled and manipulated by others, and self-reinforcement for appropriate social behaviours becomes increasingly important Parenting styles --> see class notes 3.The co-parenting system: • co-parenting - parenting in which spouses work together as a team,coordinating their child-rearing practices with each other; co-parenting can be co-operative,hostile,or characterized by different levels of investment in the parenting task • gatekeeping is one form of co-parenting in which one parent limits/controls the other parent’s level of participation 4. The sibling system: a) How are siblings affected by birth order? • 1-st-born children are generally more adult-oriented,helpful,and self-controlled than their siblings, and also tend to be more scholarly, conscientious,and serious, to excel in academic and professional endeavours • 2nd-born children have more positive interactions with their mothers than 1st-born children, and showed fewer internalized behaviour problems • downside for 1st-born children: they tend to be more fear and anxious than their siblings, to experience more guilt, and to have more difficulty coping with stressful situations (could be due to higher expectations from parents) CLASS NOTES • Early socialization: • socialization is the process by which parents and others ensure that a child’s standards of behaviour,attitudes, skills,and motives conform clo
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