Textbook Notes (363,460)
Canada (158,372)
Psychology (1,867)
PSY210H5 (84)
Chapter 14


5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

Chapter 14: Morality, Altruism, and Aggression Notes Cognitive Theories of Moral Development 1.Piaget’s cognitive theory: a) Learning the rules of moral behaviour: • premoral stage - Piaget’s 1st stage of moral development, in which the child shows little concern for rules • preschool children • moral realism - Piaget’s 2nd stage of moral development, in which the child shows great respect for rules but applies them quite inflexibly 5 year olds • • stage of moral absolutism - rules are carved in stone • immanent justice - the notion that any deviation from rules will inevitably result in punishment or retribution • morality of reciprocity - Piaget’s 3rd stage of moral development,in which the child recognizes that rules may be questioned and altered,considers the feelings and views of others,and believes in equal justice for all • 11 year olds b) Evaluation of Piaget’s theory: theory proves to be true in industrialized countries, but there’s some evidence for cross-cultural differences • • some underestimation of children’s cognitive capabilities 2. Kohlberg’s cognitive theory of moral development: • based his theory on Piaget’s, but he refined and expanded the stages and extended the age periods covered • pre-conventional level - Kohlberg’s 1st level of moral development, in which he views the child’s behaviour as based on the desire to avoid punishment and gain rewards • conventional level - Kohlberg’s 2nd level of moral development, in which the child’s behaviour is designed to solicit others’ approval and maintain good relations with them. The child accepts societal regulations unquestioningly and judges behaviour as good if it conforms these rules post-conventional level - Kohlberg’s 3rd level of moral development, in which the child’s judgements are rational and • his conduct is controlled by an internalized ethical code that is relatively independent of the approval or disapproval of others • he predicted no specific level of response at any specific age a) Moral development in girls and women: • critiques argue that Kohlberg’s theory fails to account for gender-based differences since he based it on the study of boys and men • women tend to take a more caring and interpersonal approach to moral dilemmas b) Effects of social interactions on moral development: • children’s moral judgements are also advanced when their parents use consistent disciplinary techniques that involve reasoning and explanation, when they initiate discussion of the feelings of others,and when they promote a democratic family-discussion style c) Evaluation of Kohlberg’s theory: research generally supports the sequencing of stages • • criticism: • people often show a remarkable inconsistency in their moral judgements some cross-cultural differences • • its focus on individual rights and obligations may lead to underestimates of moral development in other cultures or may exclude some culturally unique domains of morality 3.Distinguishing moral judgements from other social rules: • social-convention rules - socially based rules about everyday conduct • children understand the differences b/w moral rules and social-conventional rules • they learn to distinguish b/w the two because parents teach their children about the different consequences of disregarding these rules The Behavioural Side of Moral Development 1.Self-regulation and the delay of gratification • self-regulation - children’s ability to control behaviour on their own without reminders from others • Kopp’s phases of learning self-regulation: • control phase - children are highly dependent on caregivers to remind them about acceptable behaviours • self-control phase - the child becomes able to comply with caregiver expectations in the absence of caregiver • self-regulation phase - children become able to use strategies and plans in directing their own behaviour and capable of delay gratification • delay gratification - putting off until another time possessing or doing something that gives one pleasure • some children progress more rapidly and achieve higher levels of control than other children • children who are self-regulators have a stronger sense of “moral self” • the development of self-control is also promoted by the actions of parents and other caregivers • models who follow the rules, such as siblings and peers, are often effective in reducing cheating in young children The Evolution of Prosocial and Altruistic Behaviours • prosocial behaviour - behaviour that is designed to help or benefit other people • altruistic behaviour - intrinsically motivated behaviour that is intended to help others without expectation of acknowledgment or concrete rewar
More Less

Related notes for PSY210H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.