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Chapter 13-15

psy210 chapter 13-15 key terms.docx

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Elizabeth Johnson

KEY TERMS—Chapters 13-15 Chapter 13  Identification—the Freudian notion that children acquire gender identity by identifying with and imitating their same-sex partners  Gender typing—the process by which children acquire the values, motives and behaviours considered appropriate for their gender in their particular culture  Gender based beliefs—ideas and expectations about what is appropriate behaviour for males and females  Gender stereotypes—beliefs that members of a culture hold about how females and males ought to behave, that is, what behaviours are acceptable and appropriate for each  Gender roles—composites of the behaviours actually exhibited by a typical male or female in a given culture; the reflection of a gender stereotype in everyday life  Gender identity—the perception of oneself as either masculine or feminine  Gender-role preferences—desires to possess certain gender-typical characteristics  Sexual preferences—the preference for same or opposite sex romantic partners  Expressive characteristics—presumably typical of females, these characteristics include nurturance and concern with feelings  Instrumental characteristics—presumably typical of males, these characteristics include task and occupation orientation  Cognitive developmental theory of gender typing—Kohlberg’s theory that children use physical and behavioural clues to differentiate gender roles and to gender type themselves very early in life  Gender stability—the notion that gender does not change; males remain males and females remain females  Gender constancy—the awareness that superficial alterations in appearance or activity do not alter gender  Gender-schema theory—the notion that children develop schemas, or naïve theories, that help them to organize and structure their experience related to gender differences and gender roles  Self-socialization—the child’s spontaneous adoption of conventionally gender-appropriate behaviour  Androgyny—a normal state of being for many people who possess a notable number of both masculine and feminine psychological characteristics. Children who are more androgynous make less stereotypical play and activity choices  Multi-schematic children—children who hold more than one gender schema for responding to the world Chapter 14  Empathy—the capacity to experience the same emotion that someone else is experiencing  Premoral stage—Piaget’s first stage of moral development in which the child shows little concern for rules  Moral realism—Piaget’s second stage of moral development, in which the child shows great respect for rules but applies them quite inflexibly  Immanent justice—the notion that any deviation from rules will inevitably result in punishment or retribution  Morality of reciprocity—Piaget’s third stage of moral development, in which the child recognizes that rules may be questioned and altered, considers the feelings and views of others, ad believes in equal justice for all  Pre-conventional level—Kohlberg’s first level of moral development, in which he views the child’s behaviour as based on the desire to avoid punishment and gain rewards  Conventional level—Kohlberg’s second level of moral development, in which the child’s behaviour is designed to solicit others’ approval and maintain good relations with them. The child accepts social regulations unquestioningly and judges behaviour as good if it conforms to these rules  Post-conventional level—Kohlberg’s third level of moral development in which the child’s judgments are rational and his conduct is controlled by an internalized ethical code that is relatively independent of the approval or disapproval of others  Social-convention rules—socially based rules about everyday conduct  Self-regulation—children’s ability to control behaviour on their own without reminders from others  Control phase—according to Kopp, the first phase in learning self-regulatin when children are highly dependent on caregivers to remind them about acceptable behaviours  Self-control phase—Kopp’s second phase in learning self-regulation, when the child becomes able to comply with caregiver expectations in the absence of the caregiver  Self-regulation phase—the third phase of Kopp’s model of learning self-regulation, when children become able to use strategies and plans in directing their own behaviour and capable of delaying gratification  Delay gratification—putting off until another time possessing or doing something that gives one pleasure  Conscience—the child’s internalized values and standards of behaviour  Prosocial behaviour—behaviour that is designed to help or benefit other people  Altruistic behaviour—intrinsically motivated behaviour that is intended to help others without expectation of acknowledgment or concrete reward  Altruism—an unselfish concern for the welfare of others  Empathic—able to experience the same emotion that someone else is experiencing  Prosocial reasoning—thinking and making judgments about prosocial issues  Hedonistic reasoning—making a decision to perform a prosocial act on the basis o
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