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Chapter 7-12

psy210-test 2 terms-ch.7-12.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Josee Johnston

PSY210—Test 2 Ch. 7-12 TERMS Chapter 7  Language—a communication system in which words and their written symbols combine in various, regulated ways to produce and infinite number of messages  Communicative competence—the ability to convey thoughts, feelings, and intentions in an organized, culturally patterned way that sustains and regulates human interactions  Productive language—the production of speech  Receptive language—understanding the speech of others  Phonology—the system of sounds that a particular language uses  Phoneme—any of the basic units of a language’s phonetic system; phonemes are the smallest sound units that affect meaning  Semantics—the study of word meanings and word combinations, as in phrases, clauses and sentences  Grammar—the structure of a language; made up of morphology and syntax  Morphology—the study of a language’s smallest units of meaning or morphemes  Morpheme—any of a languages smallest units of meaning, such as a prefix, suffix or a root word  Syntax—the subdivision of grammar that prescribes how words are to be combined into phrases, clauses and sentences  Pragmatics—a set of rules that specifies appropriate language for particular social contexts  Language-acquisition device (LAD)—Naom Chomsky’s proposed mental structure in the human nervous system that incorporates an innate concept of language  Critical period—a specific period in children’s development when they are sensitive to a particular environmental stimulus that does not have the same effect on them when encountered before or after this period  Language-acquisition support system (LASS)—according to Jerome Bruner, a collection of strategies and tactics that environmental influences—initially, a child's parents or primary caregivers—provide the language learning child  Infant-directed speech or child-directed speech—a simplified style of speech parents use with young children, in which sentences are short, simple, and often repetitive; the speaker enunciates especially clearly, slowly, and in a higher pitched voice and often ends with a rising intonation; this style of speech is also called motherese  Expansion—a technique adults use in speaking to young children in which they imitate and expand or add to a child’s statement  Recast—a technique adults use in speaking to young children in which they render a child’s incomplete sentence in a more complex grammatical form  Proto-declarative—a gesture that an infant uses to call attention to an object  Proto imperative—a gesture that either an infant or a young child may use to get someone to do something she or he wants  Joint visual attention—the ability to follow another persons attentional focus or gaze of direction  Categorical speech perception—the tendency to perceive as the same a range of sounds belonging to the same phonemic group  Cooing—a very young infants production of vowel-like sounds  Babbling—an infants production of strings of consonant-vowel combinations  Patterned speech—a form of pseudo-speech in which the child utters strings of phonemes that sound very much like real speech but are not  Naming explosion—the rapid increase in vocabulary that the child typically shows at about 1.5 years of age  Overextension—the use, by a young child, of a single word to cover many different things  Underextension—the use, by a young child, of a single word in a restricted and individualistic way  Holophrase—a single word that appears to represent a complete thought  Telegraphic speech—two word utterances that include only the words that are essential to convey the speakers intent  Overregulation—the mistaken application of a principle of regular change to a word that changes irregularly  Speech acts—one- or two-word utterances that clearly refer to situations or to sequences of events  Discourse—socially based conversation  Metalinguistic awareness—the understanding that language is a system of communicating with others that is bound by rules  Phonological awareness—the understanding of the sounds of a language and of the properties such as the number of sounds in a word related to these sounds  Bilingualism—the acquisition of two languages Chapter 8  Cognition—the mental activity though which human beings acquire and process knowledge  Constructivist view—the view that children actively create their understanding of the world as they encounter new information and have new experiences  Schema/schemes—an organized unit of knowledge tha thte chuld uses to try to understand a situation; a schema forms the basis for organizing actions to respond to the environment  Organization—combining simple mental structures into more complex systems  Adaptation—the individuals tendency to adjust to environmental demands  Assimilation—moulding a new experience to fit an existing way of responding to the environment  Accommodation—modifying an existing way of responding to the environment to fit the characteristics of a new experience  Stages of development—comprehensive, qualitative changes over time in the way a child thinks  Sensorimotor stage—Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development, during child children move from purely reflexive behaviour to the beginnings of symbolic thought and goal- directed behaviours  Object permanence—the notion that entitles external to the children, such as objects and people, continue to exist independent of the child’s seeing or interacting with them  Basic reflex activity—an infants exercise of and growing proficiency in the use of innate reflexes  Primary circular reactions—behaviours in which infants repeat and modify actions that focus of their own bodies and that are pleasurable and satisfying  Secondary circular reactions—behaviours focused on objects outside the infants own body that the infant repeatedly engages in because they are pleasurable  Coordination of secondary schemata—an infants combination of different schemes to achieve a specific goal  Tertiary circular reactions—behaviours in which infants experiment with the properties of external objects and try to learn how objects respond to various actions  Inventing new means by mental combination—in this last stage of the sensorimotor period, children begin to combine schemes mentally, thus relying less on physical trial and error  Symbolic thought—the use of mental images to represent people, objects and events  Deferred imitation—mimicry of an action some time after having observed it; requires that the child has stored a mental image of the action  Core knowledge systems—ways of reasoning about ecologically important objects and events, such as the solidity and continuity of objects  Preoperational stage—in this period, the symbolic function promotes the learning of language; the period it also marked by egocentricity and intuitive behaviour in which the child can solve problems using mental operations but cannot explain how she did so  Symbolic function—the ability to use symbols such as images, words and gestures to represent objects and events in the world  Preconceptual substage—the first substage of Piaget’s preoperational period, during which the childs thought is characterized by animistic thinking and egocentricity  Animistic thinking—the attribution of life to inanimate objects  Egocentrism—the tendency to view the world from ones own perspective and to have difficulty seeing things from another’s viewpoint  Intuitive substage—the second substage of the preoperational period, during which the child begins to solve problems by means of specific mental operations by cannot yet explain how she arrives at the solutions  Conservation—the understanding that altering an objects or a substances appearance does not change its basic attributes or properties  Reversibility—the notion that one can reverse or undo a given operation either physically or mentally  Ends-over-means focus—consideration of only the end state of a problem in evaluating an event; failure to consider the means by which that end state was obtained  Centration—centering ones attention on only one dimension or characteristic of an object or situation  Concrete operations stage—period in which the child acquires such concepts as conservation and classification and can reason logically  Formal operations stage—the period in which the child becomes capable of flexible and abstract thought, complex reasoning, and hypothesis testing.  Theory of mind—understanding of the mind and how it works  Horizontal décalage—the term Piaget used to describe unevenness in childrens thinking within a particular stage; for example, in developing an understanding of conservation, children conserve different objects or substances at different ages  Mediators—according to Vygotsky, psychological tools and signs, such as language, counting, mnemonic devices, algebraic symbols, art and writing  Elementary mental functions—functions which the child is endowed with by nature, including attention, perception and memory  Higher mental functions—functions that rely on mediators, that have become increasingly sophisticated through the child’s interaction with his environment  Zone of proximal development (ZPD)—according to Vygotsky, the difference between the developmental level a child has reached and the level she is potentially capable of reaching with the guidance or collaboration of a more skilled adult or peer  Scaffolding—based on Vygotsky’s thought, an instructional process in which the teacher continually adjust the amount and type of support he offers as the child continues to develop more sophisticated skills  Reciprocal instruction—a tutoring approach based on the ideas of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding  Community of learners—an approach to classroom learning in which adults and children work together in shared activities, peers learn from each other, and the teacher serves as a guide  Guided participation—learning that occurs as children participate in activities of their community and are guided in their participation by the actions of more experienced partners in the setting  Intent community participation—children’s participation in the authentic activities of their community with the purpose of learning about the activity  Egocentric speech—according to Vygotsky, a form of self-directed dialogye by which the child instructs herself in solving problems and formulating plans; as the child matures, this becomes internalized as inner speech  Inner speech—internalized egocentric speech that continues to direct and regulate intellectual functioning  Microgenetic change—changes associated with learning that occur over the time of a specific learning experience or episode Chapter 9  Information-processing approach—a perspective on cognition and cognitive development in which the human mind is likened to a compute, processing information from the environment through perception and attention (input), encoding it in memory (storage and retrieval), and applying info to the solution of problems (software).  Microgenetic analysis—a very detailed examination of how a child solves a problem  Multi-store model—a model of information processing in which information is depicted as moving through a series of processing units—sensory register, short term memory, and long term memory—in each of which it may be stores, either fleetingly or permanently  Sensory register—the mental processing unit that receives information from the environment and stores it fleetingly  Short-term memory/working memory—the mental processing unit in which information may be stored temporarily; the “workspace” of the mind, where a decision must be made to discard information or to transfer it to permanent storage in long-term memory  Long-term memory—the mental processing unit in which information may be stored permanently and from which it may later be retrieved  Connectionist models—information processing approaches that describe mental processes in terms of the interconnections of the neural network  Neo-Piagetion theories—theories of cognitive development that reinterpret Piaget’s concepts from an information-processing perspective  Executive control structure—according to Case, a mental blueprint or plan for solving a class of problems  Cognitive processes—ways that the human mental system operates on information  Encoding—the transformation of information from the environment into a lasting mental representation  Mental representation—information stored in some form (eg. Verbal, pictorial) in the cognitive system after the person has encountered it in the environment  Strategies—conscious cognitive or behavioural activities that are used to enhance mental performance  Automatization—the process of transforming conscious, controlled behaviours into unconscious and automatic ones  Gene
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