Textbook Notes (362,812)
Canada (158,056)
Psychology (1,851)
PSY210H5 (84)
Chapter 4

TEXTBOOK Chapter 4 - Infancy: Sensation, Perception, and Learning

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

Notes From Reading C HAPTER 4: NFANCY : SENSATION, PERCEPTION ,AND  EARNING  (PGS. 116­153) PART ONE: The Newborn - Neonate –Anewborn baby ANew Baby’s Reflexes - Newborns have well-developed reflexes and sensory response, and they can respond and adapt to the environment from the first moment after birth - Reflexes –Ahuman’s involuntary response to external stimulation o These many reflexes help ensure the newborn’s survival - Abnormalities in reflexes during the first days or weeks after birth can be useful indicators for identifying visual and hearing problems - Can also help predict abnormal functions that do not appear until months or years later - At birth, physicians often test newborns for certain reflexes to evaluate the baby’s CNS as exposed to harmful substances in utero offer neurological defects Infant States - Infant States – Arecurring pattern of arousal in the newborn, ranging from alert, vigorous, wakeful activity to quiet, regular sleep; it tells us: o Indicate the from early in life, human behaviour is organized and predictable o Human beings are not passive creatures and that merely react to the environment o Internal forces play a central role in infant states and their changes - There are two states – walking (and the variation of crying behaviour) and sleeping - SLEEP o Newborn, on average, sleeps about 70% of the time in a series of long and short naps during the day and night o At 4weeks old, her periods of sleep tend to be fewer but longer o By 8 week old, she is sleeping more during the night and less during the day o Not all cultures organize sleep patterns and sleep arrangements in the same way o Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) – SIDS refers to the sudden and unexpected death of otherwise apparently healthy infants under the age of 1.  The death usually remains unexplained after all known and possible causes of death have been ruled out. o REM and Non-Rem Sleep – REM sleep is characterized by rapid, jerky movement of the eyes and, in adults, is often associated with dreaming  Infants spend 50% of their sleep in REM whereas adults spend 20%.  This activity is absent in the remaining, non-REM sleep o Autostimulation Theory – The theory that during REM sleep the infant’s brain stimulates itself and that this, in turn, stimulates early development of the central nervous system - CRYING o Crying is one of the infant’s earliest means of communicating with caregivers Pattern Characteristics Basic Linked to hunger, among other factors. Starts arrhythmically and at low intensity; gradually become louder and more rhythmic; sequence is cry-rest-inhale- rest. Angry Same as basic pattern except that segments of crying, resting, and inhaling vary in length, and crying segments are longer. Causes include removal of a pacifier or toy. Pain Sudden in onset, loud from the start, and made up of a long cry followed by a long silence that includes holding Notes From Reading C HAPTER 4: NFANCY : ENSATION, PERCEPTION ,AND  EARNING  PGS . 116­153) of breath, and then followed by a series of short, gasping inhalations. Causes include discomfort from soiled diaper, a pinprick, or stomach pain. o In early months of life, crying is related to the infant’s physiology o By 3 or 4 months, crying is increasingly related to psychological needs, such as wanting to be picked up or played with o The frequency and duration of crying may actually decrease, as the baby develops the expectation that the mother can be counted on to help o Crying patterns can alter possible abnormalities in early development o Colic – Aprolonged period of unexplained crying in an infant o May indicate illnesses, such as hernia or an ear infection h How to Sooth an Infant - INFANTS’ABILITIES TO SOOTHE THEMSELVES o Sucking, including thumb and hand, may comfort very young infants, which the baby routinely engages in, even while still in utero o May be that sucking has a soothing effects because when the baby sucks, its overall body movements are lessened o Sucking on substances with a sweet taste is more effective in calming infants than sucking on plain water o While sweet liquids are effective to a 2-week-old baby, it is less soothing for 4- week-olds unless accompanied by eye contact with an adult o As early as 4 weeks of age, the infant begins to rely on social contact with caregiver to soothe him and help regulate stress - HOW PARENTS SOOTHE THEIR BABIES o Soothing babies in order to help them reach a state in which they are neither too drowsy nor upset is one of the crucial tasks of parenting o Parents may use a pacifier with young infants as sucking can soothe infants o Other techniques include rocking, swaddling, and massaging Evaluating the Newborn’s Health and Capabilities - Brazeton Neonatal Assessment Scale – Ascale sued to measure an infant’s sensory and perceptual capabilities, motor development, range of states, and ability to regulate these states. The scale also indicates whether the brain and the central nervous system are properly regulating autonomic responsivity. - Used to identify infants at risk for developmental problems, and it can aid in diagnosing neurological impairment (also useful for predicting later development) o High score: score higher on later measures of cognitive, motor, or social devel. - Used as an intervention technique, teaching parents about their newborns’capabilities o By having them watch a health-care professional administer test to their baby o By having them try the same test with their baby themselves - Cross-cultural research on infant motor development has shown that a baby’s behaviour during the Brazelton assessment may predict later parent-infant interaction o Infants’motor abilities influence the way caregivers treat them, which in turn, is influenced by cultural practices and behavioural routines PART TWO: The Infant’s Sensory and Perceptual Capacities - Sensation – The detection of stimuli by the sensory receptors - Perception – The interpretation of sensations in order to make them meaningful Notes From Reading C HAPTER  4: NFANCY : SENSATION , PERCEPTION , AND  LEARNING  PGS . 116­153) - Babies’sensory and perceptual capabilities are quite well developed even at birth, allowing infants to begin adapting immediately to the environment - Sensory and perceptual systems may be biologically prepared to process and respond t social stimuli as their abilities are sensitive to the social environment Unlocking the Secrets of Babies’Sensory Capabilities - To study an infant’s sensory capabilities, researchers relied on the ANS information o Which controls involuntary bodily functions as heart rate and breathing - Anewborn’s motor responses can give clues to sensory abilities - Infants’sucking patterns can change in intensity or duration in response to input from the environment - Violation-of-Expectation Method introduces an unusual or impossible sight o Ie., a floating object; and if the baby responds by altering his behaviour, it suggests that the baby knows something about how objects normally work and that this expectation of normal course of events has been violated - Visual Preference Method – Amethod of studying infants’abilities to distinguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they spend attending to different stimuli - Habituation – The process by which an individual reacts with less and less intensity to a repeatedly presented stimulus, eventually responding only faintly or not at all o Can be used to study the baby’s ability to distinguish stimuli presented to the other senses – sights, smells, tastes, and tactile sensations Hearing: Babies Are Good Listeners - The development of the fetus’s auditory system is completed well before birth - Even before birth, feuses may hear complex sounds presented outside the mother’s body, musical passages, as well as able to recongize their own mother’s voice - Sounds are carried through the amniotic fluid to the fetus as a series of vibrations - Compared to adults, babies are less sensitive to low-pitched sounds; they are more likely to hear a sound that is high in pitch - Auditory Localization – The ability to determine where in space a sound is originating o Babies have this ability and able to judge how far the sound is (ie, getting closer) - In the early stages of development, infants are equally adept at processing either scale type but that culture specific experience enhances their ability to process one type of scale over the other - Listening to music early in life has particular development benefits - Maternal singing has been found to modulate infant arousal, with infants showing increased arousal in response to hearing their mothers’singing Vision: How Babies See Their Worlds - THE CLARITY OF INFANTS’VISION o VisionAcuity – Sharpness of vision; the clarity with which fine details can be discerned o Vision of infants under 1 month of age ranges from 20/200 to 20/800 o Visual acuity improves rapidly over the next few month, however, and seems to be within the normal adult range by the time the child is between 6 months and 1 Notes From Reading CHAPTER  4: NFANCY: SENSATION, ERCEPTION ,AND LEARNING  PGS. 116­153) o Testing: how sensitive a baby is to visual details such as the width or density of a set of strips in a pictorial image - HOW BABIES PERCEIVE COLOURS o Using the habituation procedu
More Less

Related notes for PSY210H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.